Synthetic Organic Contaminants,  including pesticides & herbicides
                                              Health Effects from Exposure
Draft                                                                                                                                                       9-22-2007

The EPA Office of Drinking Water recognize the real possibility of the organic chemicals contaminating your
drinking water and have set very low dose Maximum Contaminant Level
Goals (MCL) and documented the potential
health effects from exposure.

EPA's sludge disposal group didn't do a risk assessment of the organics in sludge biosolids because they were
banned, or no longer manufactured, or did not show up in many sewage treatment plants  during the National
sewage sludge survey NSSS.  EPA can not find what it doesn't look for. As an example, in
Leather Industries of
America, Inc., vs EPA,  the plaintiff claimed EPA "did not consider any treatment plants accepting sewage from
the leather industry in its National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) of 479 treatment plants out of 11,407 nationally.
According to the ruling, EPA claimed to have performed sampling and analysis at 208 of the 479 treatment plants -
or- was the number 180? Both numbers were given by the EPA, so the Court was not sure which was correct." This
suit was used to remove chromium from the Part 503 sludge rule.

EPA Office of Drinking Water states:

Fluoride. Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health. Each community makes
its own decision about whether or not to add fluoride. EPA has set an enforceable drinking water standard for
fluoride of
4 mg/L [parts per million (ppm)] (some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of this
level over many years could get bone disease, including pain and tenderness of the bones).

EPA has also set a secondary fluoride standard of
2 mg/L [ppm] to protect against dental fluorosis. Dental
fluorosis, in its moderate or severe forms, may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth. This
problem occurs only in developing teeth, before they erupt from the gums. Children under nine should not drink
water that has more than
2 mg/L of fluoride.

2,4-D
The MCL has been set at 70 ppb [parts per billion] because EPA believes, given present technology and
resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant
should it occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found 2,4-D to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: nervous system damage.

Long-term: 2,4-D has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the nervous system, kidneys and liver.

2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
The MCL has been set at 0.05 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found 2,4,5-TP to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: depression and other nervous system effects,
weakness, stomach irritation and minor damage to liver and kidneys.

Long-term: 2,4,5-TP has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: minor liver and kidney damage.

Acrylamide
There are currently no acceptable means of detecting acrylamide in drinking water. In this case, EPA is requiring
water suppliers to use a special treatment technique to control its amount in water. Since acrylamide is used in
drinking water treatment processes, it is being controlled simply by limiting its use for this purpose.

Short-term: EPA has found acrylamide to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to the nervous system, weakness and
incoordination in the legs.

Long-term: Acrylamide has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: damage to the nervous system, paralysis; cancer

Alachlor
The MCL has been set at 2 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and resources,
this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it
occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found alachlor to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: slight skin and eye irritation.

Long-term: Alachlor has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: damage to liver, kidney, spleen; lining of nose and eyelids; cancer.

Atrazine  
The MCL has been set at 3 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the lowest
level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in drinking
water.

Short-term: EPA has found atrazine to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: congestion of heart, lungs and kidneys; low blood
pressure; muscle spasms; weight loss; damage to adrenal glands.

Long-term: Atrazine has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: weight loss, cardiovascular damage, retinal and some muscle degeneration; cancer.

Benzoapyrene
The MCL has been set at 0.2 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found benzo(a)pyrene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: red blood cell damage, leading to anemia;
suppressed immune system.

Long-term: Benzo(a)pyrene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above
the MCL: developmental and reproductive effects; cancer.

Carbofuran
The MCL has also been set at 40 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found carbofuran to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: headache, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, chest pains,
blurred vision, anxiety and general muscular weakness. These effects are reversible.

Long-term: Carbofuran has the potential to cause the following health effects from long-term exposures at levels
above the MCL: damage to the nervous and reproductive systems.

Chlordane
The MCL has been set at 2 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and resources,
this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it
occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found chlordane to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: central nervous system effects - including irritability,
excess salivation, labored breathing, tremors, convulsions, deep depression - and blood system effects such as
anemia and certain types of leukemia.

Long-term: Chlordane has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: damage to liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen and adrenal glands; cancer.

Dalapon
The MCL has also been set at 0.2 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: Dalapon is not known to cause any health problems when people are exposed to it at levels above the
MCL for relatively short periods of time.

Long-term: Dalapon has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: increased kidney-to-body weight.

Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate
The MCL has been set at 0.4 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: Adipate is not known to cause any health problems when people are exposed to it at levels above the
MCL for relatively short periods of time.

Long-term: Adipate has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: reduced body weight and bone mass; damage to liver and testes; cancer.

Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate
The MCL has been set at 6 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and resources,
this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it
occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found phthalate to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: mild gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vertigo.

Long-term: Phthalate has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: damage to liver and testes; reproductive effects; cancer.

Dibromochloropropane
The MCL has been set at 0.2 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found DBCP to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: kidney and liver damage and atrophy of the testes.

Long-term: DBCP has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
kidney damage and antifertility; cancer.

Dinoseb
The MCL has been set at 7 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the lowest
level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in drinking
water.

Short-term: EPA has found dinoseb to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: sweating, headache, mood changes.

Long-term: Dinoseb has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: decreased body and thyroid weight, degeneration of testes; thickening of intestinal lining.

Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)
The MCL has been set at 0.00003 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and
resources, this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant
should it occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found dioxin to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: liver damage, weight loss, wasting of glands important to
the body's immune system.

Long-term: Dioxin has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
a variety of reproductive effects, from reduced fertility to birth defects; cancer.

Diquat
The MCL has been set at 20 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found diquat to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: dehydration.

Long-term: Diquat has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
cataracts.

Endothall
The MCL has been set at 0.1 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found endothall to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: depressed breathing and heart rate.

Long-term: Endothall has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: increase in size of some internal organs, particularly the stomach and intestine.

Endrin
The MCL has been set at 2 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the lowest
level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in drinking
water.

Short-term: EPA has found endrin to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: tremors, labored breathing, mental confusion, convulsions.

Long-term: Endrin has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
convulsions and damage to liver tissue.

Epichlorohydrin
There are currently no acceptable means of detecting epichlorohydrin in drinking water. In this case, EPA is
requiring water suppliers to use a special treatment technique to control its amount in water. Since epichlorohydrin
is used in drinking water treatment processes, it is being controlled simply by limiting its use for this purpose.

Short-term: EPA has found epichlorohydrin to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: skin irritation; detrimental effects on liver,
kidneys, central nervous system.

Long-term: Epichlorohydrin has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above
the MCL: stomach, eye and skin irritation; chromosome aberrations; adverse changes in blood; cancer.

Ethylene dibromide
The MCL has been set at 0.05 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and
resources, this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant
should it occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found EDB to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to the liver, stomach, and adrenal glands, along
with significant reproductive system toxicity, particularly the testes.

Long-term: EDB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the respiratory system, nervous system, liver, heart, and kidneys; cancer.

Glyphosate
The MCL has been set at 0.7 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found glyphosate to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: congestion of the lungs; increased breathing rate.

Long-term: Glyphosate has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: kidney damage, reproductive effects.

Heptachlor
The MCL for heptachlor has been set at 0.4 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present
technology and resources, this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove
this contaminant should it occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found heptachlor and its epoxide to potentially cause the following health effects when people
are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: liver and central nervous system
damage.

Long-term: Heptachlor and its epoxide have the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at
levels above the MCL: extensive liver damage; cancer.

Heptachlor
epoxide
The MCL for the epoxide is 0.2 ppb.

Short-term: EPA has found heptachlor and its epoxide to potentially cause the following health effects when people
are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: liver and central nervous system
damage.

Long-term: Heptachlor and its epoxide have the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at
levels above the MCL: extensive liver damage; cancer.

Hexachlorobenzene  
The MCL has been set at 1 part per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and resources,
this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it
occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found HCB to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: skin lesions, nerve and liver damage.

Long-term: HCB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to liver and kidneys; reproductive effects; benign tumors of endocrine glands; cancer.

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
The MCL has been set at 50 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found HEX to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: gastrointestinal distress; damage to liver, kidneys and
heart.

Long-term: HEX has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the stomach and kidneys.

Lindane
The MCL has been set at 0.2 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found lindane to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: high body temperature and pulmonary edema.

Long-term: Lindane has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: liver and kidney damage.

Methoxychlor  
The MCL has been set at 40 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found methoxychlor to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed
to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: central nervous system depression, diarrhea, and
damage to liver, kidney and heart tissue.

Long-term: Methoxychlor has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above
the MCL: damage to liver, kidney and heart tissue; retards growth.

Oxamyl [Vydate]
The MCL has been set at 0.2 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found oxamyl to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: tremors, salivation and tearing due to interference with
nerve function.

Long-term: Oxamyl has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: decreased body weight.

PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls]  
The MCL has been set at 0.5 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and
resources, this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant
should it occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found PCBs to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: acne-like eruptions and pigmentation of the skin; hearing
and vision problems; spasms.

Long-term: PCBs has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
effects similar to acute poisonings; irritation of nose, throat and gastrointestinal tracts; changes in liver function;
cancer.

Part 503 does not regulate PCBs  because according to EPA they were banned in 1979.  Indirectly, EPA claims to
prohibit PCBs in sludge biosolids at more than 50 ppm.  However, under
Part 40 CFR 761.80 July 1998 there are
still allowable uses for PCBs which can then be in sludge biosolids. In fact, on september 18, 2007, under 761.80
Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions. (j) The Administrator grants the United States
Defense Logistics Agency’s July 21, 2005 petition for an exemption for 1 year to import
1,328,482 pounds of
PCBs
and PCB items stored or in use in Japan as identified in its petition, as amended, for disposal.
[FR Doc. E7–18345 Filed 9–17–07; 8:45 am]

Pentachlorophenol  
The MCL has been set at 1 part per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and resources,
this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it
occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found pentachlorophenol to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to the central nervous system
Long-term: Pentachlorophenol has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels
above the MCL: reproductive effects and damage to liver and kidneys; cancer.

Picloram  
The MCL has also been set at 0.5 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found picloram to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to central nervous system, weakness,
diarrhea, weight loss.

Long-term: Picloram has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: liver damage.

Simazine
The MCL has also been set at 4 ppb because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the
lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in
drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found simazine to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: weight loss, changes in blood.

Long-term: Simazine has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: tremors; damage to testes, kidneys, liver and thyroid; gene mutations; cancer.

Toxaphene  
The MCL has been set at 3 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and resources,
this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it
occur in drinking water.

Short-term: EPA has found toxaphene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: central nervous system effects including restlessness,
hyperexcitability, tremors, spasms or convulsions.

Long-term: Toxaphene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: liver and kidney degeneration; central nervous system effects; possible immune system suppression; cancer.