HAWAII -- PATHOGEN TEST -- SYNAGRO SLUDGE COMPOST PELLETS
by Jim Bynum
Test Protocol for Synagro Experiment
Principal Investigator:       Roger Fujioka, Ph.D.

I have excerpted the primary results which claims on one hand that it was effectively disinfected and then states there
are some very deadly bacteria found in this disinfected material. There is a lot of misdirection in the results. As an
example, Salmonella and E. coli are two of the total coliform group
(all species now include pathogens) as well as
being part of the heterotropic bacteria group. The
heterotropic bacteria group includes all of the pathogens.

Two of the surviving heterotropic bacteria mentioned are:

Bacillus : causes anthrax, cause toxin-mediated food poisoning, necrotizing cellulitis "flesh eating" Drug resistant.

Clostridium:  causative agent of botulism, important cause of gas gangrene, colitis, and food poisoning,  enteritis,
necrotizing "flesh eating" intestinal tissue, Multiply antibiotic-resistant.  There  was a 35% increase in deaths between
1999 and 2004. Reported mortality rates from Clostridium difficile disease in the United States increased from 5.7 per
million population in 1999 to 23.7 per million in 2004, (Sept. 2007) deaths included septicemia (n = 7,654, 37%), renal
failure (n = 4,786, 23%), pneumonia (n = 3,430, 17%), urinary tract infection (n = 1,496, 7%), and anemia (n = 785,
4%). HIV was reported for 81 CDAD-   related deaths (<1%).  Now produces poisonous Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gas.

The lab tests on soil makes you wonder about the science as they were run at 24 ± 3°C whereas the coliform grow
best as 37 ± 3°C.

What is strange about the test is that the growth of coliforms in the soil was given as proof the synagro pellets were
releasing nutrients into the soil.  It may be just the opposite, nutrient  deprived bacteria from in-vessel composting
(
viable, but nonculturable) were released into a nutrient rich environment which promoted growth.


Excerpts
Despite effectively disinfecting Salmonella, total coliform and E. coli in the biosolid, high
concentrations (2.3 x 10-6 CFU/g of pellet) of heterotrophic bacteria was recovered from the same
Synagro Pellet. These results show that Synagro Pellets still contain high concentrations of
bacteria. The bacteria recovered  from these_pellets were characterized as gram positive bacteria.
Since bacterial spores are known to be resistant to heating, it is likely that gram positive spores
survived the Synagro heat treatment process. In this regard,both Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp.
are expected to survive the Synagro sludge treatment process. Since the heterotrophic bacterial
assay was,conducted under aerobic conditions, Bacillus spores but not Clostridium spores can be
expected to be cultured. Thus, the heterotrophic bacteria in Synagro pellet most likely represent
.residual spore-forrning Bacillus which are normally found in sludge and which are resistant
to heat inactivation.

In this experiment, the eight soil samples were incubated at 24 ± 3°C for 12 days.
The objective of this experiment was to determine whether the Synagro pellets added to Molokai soil will stimulate the
growth of total coliform bacteria. The results of this test were used to determine whether nutrients were released into
the soil by Synagro pellets during the experimental period.

when this soil was supplemented with 1X and 5 X Synagro pellet, the initial concentration of total coliform (1 1 X 0)
MPN/g of soil) increased by approximately two logs (2.2 x 107 MPN/g of soil) over the 12 day
~ experiment. Waimanalo soil amended with Hoagland Solution showed about a 1.5 log increase. These results show
that total coliform populations in Waimanalo soil samples were .multiplying in response to the addition of Synagro
pellets and to Hoagland Solution. These results provide evidence that Synagro pellets were releasing nutrients during
the experiment.





Despite effectively disinfecting Salmonella, total coliform and E. coli in the biosolid, high
concentrations (2.3 x 10-6 CFU/g of pellet) of heterotrophic bacteria was recovered from the same
Synagro Pellet. These results show that Synagro Pellets still contain high concentrations of
bacteria. The bacteria recovered  from these_pellets were characterized as gram positive bacteria.
Since bacterial spores are known to be resistant to heating, it is likely that gram positive spores
survived the Synagro heat treatment process. In this regard,both Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp.
are expected to survive the Synagro sludge treatment process. Since the heterotrophic bacterial
assay was,conducted under aerobic conditions, Bacillus spores but not Clostridium spores can be
expected to be cultured. Thus, the heterotrophic bacteria in Synagro pellet most likely represent
.residual spore-forrning Bacillus which are normally found in sludge and which are resistant
to heat inactivation.

In this experiment, the eight soil samples were incubated at 24 ± 3°C for 12 days.
The objective of this experiment was to determine whether the Synagro pellets added to Molokai soil will stimulate the
growth of total coliform bacteria. The results of this test were used to determine whether nutrients were released into
the soil by Synagro pellets during the experimental period.

when this soil was supplemented with 1X and 5 X Synagro pellet, the initial concentration of total coliform (1 1 X 0)
MPN/g of soil) increased by approximately two logs (2.2 x 107 MPN/g of soil) over the 12 day
~ experiment. Waimanalo soil amended with Hoagland Solution showed about a 1.5 log increase. These results show
that total coliform populations in Waimanalo soil samples were multiplying in response to the addition of Synagro
pellets and to Hoagland Solution. These results provide evidence that Synagro pellets were releasing nutrients during
the experiment.
RESULTS Hawaii0001.pdf