Bacteria: (Singular: bacterium) Microscopic living organisms that can aid in pollution control by
metabolizing organic matter in sewage, oil spills or other pollutants. However, bacteria in soil, water or air
can also cause human, animal and plant health problems.
(Science: biology) Any individual living thing, whether animal or plant. A living thing that has (or can
develop) the ability to act or function independently.A system considered analogous in structure or
function to a living body; the social organism. Any living thing that exhibits living characteristics and is
composed of one cell or more.
6. THE HUMAN ORGANISM
Several studies have investigated the spontaneous development of student conceptions about The
Human Organism. A general pattern that emerged from this research is that until the age of seven,
students have little knowledge about the human organism. By age nine or ten, there is a marked increase
in their knowledge (Carey, 1985).
Definitions are the foundation of environmental law. However, it would appear the Ph.D's at EPA don't
understand the concept of law and organisms, or they intentional set out to confuse the water industry
and the public.
"Coliform Organism: Microorganisms found in the intestinal tract of humans and
animals. Their presence in water indicates fecal pollution and potentially adverse
contamination by pathogens." http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/cterms.html
Fecal Coliform Bacteria: Bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of mammals. Their presence in water or
sludge is an indicator of pollution and possible contamination by pathogens.
503.9(t) Pollutant is an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and
inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion,
inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion
through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the Administrator of EPA, cause
death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions
(including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms (humans) or
offspring (children) of the organisms.
Short-term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of sewage effluent
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toxicant test must be performed concurrently with each effluent toxicity test. ..... the effluent test and the reference
toxicant test, and the objective of ...
www.epa.gov/waterscience/methods/wet/disk1/ctm4-10.pdf - Similar pages
4.3.1 The test organisms used in the procedures described in this manual are the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon
variegatus; the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina; the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia; the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata;
and the red macroalga, Champia parvula. The organisms used should be disease-free and appear healthy, behave
normally, feed well, and have low mortality in cultures, during holding, and in test control. Test organisms should be
positively identified to species (see Section 6, Test Organisms).
4.7 QUALITY OF TEST ORGANISMS
4.7.1 The health of test organisms is primarily assessed by the performance (survival, growth, and/or reproduction) of
organisms in control treatments of individual tests. The health and sensitivity of test organisms is also assessed by
reference toxicant testing. In addition to documenting the sensitivity and health of test organisms, reference toxicant
testing is used to initially demonstrate acceptable laboratory performance (Subsection 4.15) and to document ongoing
laboratory performance (Subsection 4.16).
4.7.2 Regardless of the source of test organisms (in-house cultures or purchased from external suppliers), the testing
laboratory must perform at least one acceptable reference toxicant test per month for each toxicity test method
conducted in that month (Subsection 4.16). If a test method is conducted only monthly, or less frequently, a reference
toxicant test must be performed concurrently with each effluent toxicity test.
4.7.3 When acute or short-term chronic toxicity tests are performed with effluents or receiving waters using test
organisms obtained from outside the test laboratory, concurrent toxicity tests of the same type must be performed with
a reference toxicant, unless the test organism supplier provides control chart data from at least the last five monthly
short-term chronic toxicity tests using the same reference toxicant and test conditions (see Section 6, Test Organisms).
4.7.4 The supplier should certify the species identification of the test organisms, and provide the taxonomic reference
(citation and page) or name(s) of the taxonomic expert(s) consulted.
4.7.5 If a routine reference toxicant test fails to meet test acceptability criteria, then the reference toxicant test must be
6.1.5 Where states have developed culturing and testing methods for indigenous species other than those
recommended in this manual, data comparing the sensitivity of the substitute species and one or more of the
recommended species must be obtained in side-by-side toxicity tests with reference toxicants and/or effluents, to
ensure that the species selected are at least as sensitive as the recommended species. These data must be
submitted to the permitting authority (State or Region) if required. USEPA acknowledges that reference toxicants
prepared from pure chemicals may not always be representative of effluents. However, because of the observed
and/or potential variability in the quality and toxicity of effluents, it is not possible to specify a representative effluent.
Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms
Daphnia magna and D. pulex
brine shrimp (Artemia salina)
fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)
rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
brook trout (Salvelinas fontinalis)
mysids (Mysidopsis bahia and Holmesimysis costata)
sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus)
sliversides (Menida menidia, M. beryllina, and M. peninsulae)