Public Relations Programs Designed to Fool the Public and Farmers July 2009
update August 29, 2009
In 1992, The Environmental Protection Agency places passive smoke on its list of major carcinogens, making it subject
to federal workplace and other regulations. http://thewatchers.us/index/smoking.html
In 1993, EPA released its sewage sludge regulations which included many carcinogens which are taken up by food
crops and the runoff is taken in by drinking water treatment plants. However, EPA failed to address these carcinogens
many of which are carcinogens by inhalation. Knowing this, EPA still initiated several public relations campaigns to
convince the public and state regulators that sludge / biosolids is a safe fertilizer for agricultural land, parks, golf
courses, school grounds, home lawns, and gardens, including the White House.
EPA "scientists" failed to address 116 of the priority toxic pollutants and claim the 10 hazardous substances (toxic
pollutants originally addressed in part 503) and their compounds are safe at the ceiling levels allowed in sludge, when
used as a fertilizer. In any other case, the 10 pollutants are poisons:
Arsenic (NIOSH CC 4025000) by inhalation or ingestion-carcinogen-mutagenic data.
Cadmium (NIOSH EU 9800000) by inhalation and other routes-carcinogen-mutagenic data.
Chromium (NIOSH GB 4200005) by inhalation and other routes-carcinogen-mutagenic data.
Copper (NIOSH GL 5325000) by ingestion and other routes-carcinogen-mutagenic data.
Lead (NIOSH OF 7525000) by ingestion and other routes-carcinogen-mutagenic data.
Mercury (NIOSH OV 4550000) by inhalation and other routes-carcinogen-mutagenic data.
Molybdenum (NIOSH QA 4680000) by inhalation, ingestion and other routes.
Nickel (NIOSH QR 5950000) by inhalation, ingestion and other routes-carcinogen-mutagenic data.
Selenium (NIOSH US 7700000) by inhalation and other unknown routes-carcinogen (causes blind staggers in cattle).
Zinc (NIOSH ZG 8600000) by ingestion and other routes-carcinogen.
1989 Federal Register list of EPA documented cancer causing chemicals in sludge - biosolids
the CERCLA, Public Law 96-510, was primarily designed to close the loopholes in the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act to protect the public and environment from a release of hazardous
substances (pollutants) from inactive hazardous waste sites. (House Report 96-1016, May 16, 1980)
the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) own recommendations would violate the current food slander
laws: "(e.) Because sewage can be regarded as filth, food physically contaminated with sludge can be
considered adulterated even though there is no direct health hazard. Sludge should not be applied
directly to growing or mature crops where sludge particles may remain in or on the food. (f.) Commercial
compost and bagged fertilizer products derived from sludges should be labeled properly to minimize
contamination of crops in the human food chain which may result from their use. (c.) Crops which are
customarily eaten raw should not be planted within three years after the last sludge application. (d.) Crops
such as green beans, beets, etc. which may contaminate other foods in the kitchen before cooking should
not be grown in sludge-treated land unless the sludge gives a negative test for pathogens." (Table 14.
FDA Recommendations to EPA on the Land Application of Sludge (66, 75, 76), EPA-600-1-80- 025, May 1980)
Project Officer Robert K. Bastian
Institutional Constraints and Public Acceptance Barriers to Utilization of Municipal Wastewater and Sludge for Land
Reclamation and Biomass Production
traditional environmental organizations, such as the National Wildlife Federation, National Resources Defense Council,
Sierra Club and Audubon Society have typically not mobilized their membership against such projects. Each of these
measures has effectively made the disposal of sludge more complex and more costly, and in part has contributed to a
shifting of the focus away from disposal methods that are regulated to methods that remain unregulated, or regulated
EPA started transferring liability for unsafe waste disposal to agriculture with the policy Land Application of Municipal
Sewage Sludge for the Production of Fruits and Vegetables. A Statement of Federal Policy and Guidance, SW 905.
Helminth and Heavy Metals Transmission From Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge
Farmers throughout the world have used human and animal fecal material as fertilizer for hundreds of years. Only
since the early 1900's has the use of such materials been recognized as the source of many
diseases. The soil was treated with liquid sludge and dried sludge (Nu-earth). Helminths ova revived from both types
of sludge and infected pigs. [Just not bad they said]
Development of Methodology for Determining Risk Assessment When Sludge is Applied to Land
EPA still does not have the required data bases - EPA did not include chemicals, heavy metals or pathogens in its risk
assessment for the 1993 Part 503 sludge rule.
Sludge and the Land: The Role of Soil and Water Conservation Districts in Land Application of Sewage Sludge
Examples of land application opportunities include:
-- spreading sludge on cropland, pastures or grassland.
-- using the sludge to help reclaim surface mined land, mine spoils, and other drastically disturbed lands.
-- application of sludge products on gardens, nurseries, golf courses, etc.
-- application of sludge on forestland, parkland or highway median strips.
The second 1984 "Policy on Municipal Sludge Management" was issued by EPA in (49 FR 24358, June 12, 1984. EPA
stated, The Agency will require states to establish and maintain programs to ensure that local communities utilize
sludge management techniques that are consistent with federal regulations and guidelines. Local communities will
remain responsible for choosing among alternative programs; for planing, constructing, and operating facilities to meet
their needs; and for ensuring the continuing availability of adequate and acceptable disposal or use capacity.
POWELL AND TATE PUBLIC RELATIONS SCHEME TO CHANGE PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF SLUDGE
1993 DOCUMENT OUTLINING WEF PROGRAM TO CHANGE SLUDGE TO BIOSOLIDS
EPA'S PUBLIC RELATION CAMPAIGN
EPA HAS STATED IT HAS 40 YEARS OF SOUND SCIENCE BEHIND THE PART 503. EPA'S PUBLIC RELATIONS
CAMPAIGN FRONTED BY THE WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION CLAIMS THEIR HAS NEVER BEEN A
DOCUMENTED CASE OF HARM FROM SLUDGE.
EPA's John Waker and Bob Bastian put the program together even though the metals limits for Class A sludge
(biosolids) would prevent its disposal in a permitted 503 landfill
Plain English Guide to the Part 503 Risk Assessment
Chapter 6 -- Questions and Answers on Part 503 Risk Assessment
Chemicals, toxic heavy metals and pathogenic disease causing organisms not included in risk assessment.
Claims heavy metals do not cause cancer.
Merriam-Webster dates "biosolid" to 1977 based on a single occurrence of the word at a conference of paper-mill
operators, a usage that has nothing to do with the word's current definition.
Biosolids 2000 Program
With the tools in place to promote greater public acceptance of biosolids, the next step is to give a focus to
the public acceptance effort. The Biosolids 2000 Program was formulated in 1995. The program’s goal is to have
biosolids recycling publicly acceptable worldwide by the year 2000. This program should be carried out at all levels of
organizations having responsibility for biosolids recycling - local, state, provincial, and federal governments
throughout the international community. The underlying strategy to promote biosolids recycling encourages positive
thinking (away from the disposal mentality)
SLUDGE, BIOSOLIDS, AND THE PROPAGANDA MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
The Water Environment Federation’s elaborate effort to rename sewage sludge as “biosolids” is an example in practice
of the “propaganda model” of communications, which sees its task as indoctrinating target audiences with
ideas favorable to the interests of the communicators. The propaganda model assumes that members of the public are
irrational and focuses therefore on symbolic and emotional aspects of communication. This approach to communicating
arouses public resentment rather than trust. In place of a “propaganda model,” public officials should adopt a
“democratic model,” which assumes that audiences are rational and intellectually capable of meaningful participation in
NEW SOLUTIONS, Vol. 12(4) 347-353, 2002
PR Guidance for Republicans on Environment and deregulation
Luntz Research Companies
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