2009 -- The Drosophila Nora virus is an enteric virus, transmitted via feces
The biology of the Drosophila viruses has not been intensely investigated. Here we have investigated the biology of the
Nora virus, a persistent Drosophila virus. We find that injected Nora virus is able to replicate in the files, reaching a high
titer that is maintained in the next generation. There is a remarkable variation in the viral loads of individual flies in
persistently infected stocks; the titers can differ by three orders of magnitude. The Nora virus is mainly found in the
intestine of infected flies, and the histology of these infected intestines show increased vacuolization. The virus is
excreted in the feces and is horizontally transmitted. The Nora virus infection has a very mild effect on the longevity of
the flies, and no significant effect on the number of eggs laid and the percent of eggs that develop to adults.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 101, Issue 1, April 2009, Pages 29-33

NON TECHNICAL SUMMARY: Musca domestica is an economically important insect pest of livestock and poultry.
Throughout the United States, this insect is also considered a nuisance pest at the rural/urban interface and is a
recognized vector of various food-borne and vertebrate diseases. Due to the high costs associated with insecticide use
and application, the increasing resistance of filth fly pests to insecticides, and the increasing environmental concern of
both producers and consumers, there has been growing interest in cultural and biological control methods as
alternative management strategies. This project is designed to provide insight as to how the endemic MdSGHV
influences the mating behavior and reproductive fitness of adult female house flies and how it affects the intrinsic rate
of increase of the host The development of a novel microbial control agent as an environmentally sound management
strategy will help to achieve decreased inputs for livestock and poultry protection.

1989 -- Isolation of Enterovirus and Reovirus from Sewage and Treated
Effluents in Selected Puerto Rican Communities (EPA)
APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Feb. 1989, p. 503-506 Vol. 55, No. 2

1981 --
One-year survey of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and reoviruses isolated from effluent at an activated-sludge
purification plant.
ABSTRACT: Samples of raw sewage, primary effluent, and secondary effluent from a large activated-sludge purification
plant near Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) were collected every second week for 1 year. Viruses were detected in all
secondary effluent samples and in six of seven samples obtained after final chlorination. Adenoviruses (85% reduction)
and reoviruses (28% reduction) were removed less efficiently by this treatment process than were enteroviruses (93%
reduction). In addition, 57 of 171 samples of effluent tested were positive for either adenoviruses or reoviruses, or
both, when enteroviruses were not isolated. This clearly shows that the use of enteroviruses as sole indicators of
viruses in water may miss up to one-third of instances of viral contamination. Enteroviruses and adenoviruses were
isolated most frequently in HeLa-R cell cultures, whereas reoviruses were most often isolated in primary monkey kidney
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 January; 41(1): 51-59

1972 -- Concentration of Reovirus and Adenovirus from Sewage and Effluents by Protamine Sulfate (Salmine)
Treatment 1
Protamine sulfate was employed to recover reoviruses, adenoviruses, and certain enteroviruses from sewage and
treated effluents; 50- to 400-fold concentration of viral content was achieved.
Appl Microbiol. 1972 September; 24(3): 510–512.