Chemicals to be found in sludge and recycled water         10+ studies

work in progress

Inorganic Disease Table 7              
Synthetic Organic Disease table 8
Volatile Organic Disease Table 9

2010 -- Stain repellent chemical linked to thyroid disease in adults

2009 -- Health Risks from Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fertilizer Applied to Soil in Recreation Areas
Prepared under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Atlanta, Georgia 30333
In contrast, the estimated exposure from Milorganite dust is at least 100-fold less than FDA
tolerance limits for PCB residues in milk, fish, and meat. This difference in acceptable exposure
limits is due to the
unavoidability of PCB residues in many foods. Based on this assessment,
the worst-case exposure experienced by MSD workers represented no apparent health hazard.

2009 -- Perfluorinated compounds: Avoid inputs – protect the environment
There was proof that PFCs are introduced into human drinking water supply in this fashion at the
Möhne Reservoir in North Rhine-Westphalia in 2006. Farmers had applied soil conditioners in the
vicinity of this reservoir which—unknown to them- contained high levels of PFCs in sludge labelled
as a biowaste mixture. As a result, PFCs entered the drinking water supply system—and into the
population’s bloodstream. Although this was an isolated case, it is an example of the challenges
facing the use of sewage sludge in agriculture: since sewage sludge is generally considered a
pollutant sink, there is a risk that even compliance with current limit values and other constraints
might not stop new, as yet unknown and therefore non-regulated substances, from entering water
and soils.
umwelt bundes amt, Press Release No. 46/2009

2008 -- Risk of Childhood Cancers Associated With Residence in Agriculturally Intense Areas in the
United States
Background: The potential for widespread exposure to agricultural pesticides through drift during
application raises concerns about possible health effects to exposed children living in areas of high
agricultural activity.
Objectives: We evaluated whether residence in a county with greater agricultural activity was
associated with risk of developing cancer in children < 15 years of age.
Methods: Incidence data for U.S. children 0-14 years of age diagnosed with cancer between 1995
and 2001 were provided by member registries of the North American Association of Central Cancer
Registries. We determined percent cropland for each county using agricultural census data, and
used the overall study distribution to classify agriculturally intense counties. We estimated odds
ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all ages and 5-year age groups for total cancers and
selected cancer sites using logistic regression.
Results: Our study results showed statistically significant increased risk estimates for many types
of childhood cancers associated with residence at diagnosis in counties having a moderate to high
level of agricultural activity, with a remarkably consistent dose-response effect seen for counties
having ≥ 60% of the total county acreage devoted to farming. Risk for different cancers varied by
type of crop.
Conclusions: Although interpretation is limited by the ecologic design, in this study we were able to
evaluate rarer childhood cancers across a diverse agricultural topography. The findings of this
exploratory study support a continued interest in the possible impact of long-term, low-level
pesticide exposure in communities located in agriculturally intense areas.
Environmental Health Perspectives. 2008;116(4):559-565.

2008 -- Concentrations and patterns of perfluorinated compounds in Georgia 30 (USA) surface
waters near and distant to a major use source
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other
62 things, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant
63 applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of this work was to assess the
64 concentrations of PFCs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid
65 (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic
66 acid (PFUA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), fluorinated telomer carboxylic acids
67 (FTCAs), and fluorinated telomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) in surface waters of
68 Georgia near (wastewater land application site (LAS) for Dalton, GA) and distant (Altamaha
69 River and estuary, GA) to North America’s largest carpet manufacturing site to understand the
70 fate of PFCs in freshwater and estuaries of Georgia. Levels of PFCs were very high in the
71 Conasauga River below the LAS (PFOA 252.9 – 1150.0 ng/L, PFOS 191.5 – 318.3 ng/L, PFNA
72 201.6 – 368.8 ng/L, PFDA 30.1 – 131/.3 ng/L, PFUA 58.0 – 99.2 ng/L, and PFOSA 161.7 –
73 282.5 ng/L) and in small streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA 49.9 – 299.0 ng/L and PFOS 15.8
74 – 120.0 ng/L), and are among the highest ever measured at a non-spill or direct release location.
75 PFCs in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA 3.0 – 3.1 ng/L and PFOS 2.6 – 2.7 ng/L),
76 yet higher than reported in the Atlantic Ocean, suggesting this pathway as a potential source of
77 PFC’s to estuaries. No FTCAs or FTUCAs were detected in the water samples. The elevated
78 concentrations of PFOS at two locations in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold for
79 effects predicted for predatory birds consuming aquatic organisms continuously exposed to these
80 levels, suggesting further study in the Dalton region.

2006 -- Mass Loading and Fate of Perfluoroalkyl Surfactants in Wastewater Treatment Plants
Wastewater treatment plants have recently been identified as a significant pathway for the
introduction of perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PASs) to natural waters. In this study, we measured
concentrations and fate of several PASs in six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York
State. We also monitored and measured matrix effects (ionization suppression and enhancement)
by postcolumn infusion and standard additions. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in
effluents of the six WWTPs ranged from 58 to 1050 ng/L. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was
also ubiquitous in effluents of these WWTPs, albeit at much lower concentrations (3−68 ng/L). Two
of these WWTPs employed identical treatment processes, with similar hydraulic retentions, but
differed only in that Plant B treated domestic and commercial waste, whereas Plant A had an
additional industrial influence. We found that this industrial influence resulted in significantly greater
mass flows of all of the PASs analyzed. Primary treatment was found to have no effect on the mass
flows of PASs. Secondary treatment by activated sludge in Plant A significantly increased (p < 0.05)
the mass flows of PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and
perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA). However, in Plant B, only the mass flow of PFOA was significantly
increased. The observed increase in mass flow of several PASs may have resulted from
biodegradation of precursor compounds such as fluorotelomer alcohols, which is supported by
significant correlations in the mass flow of PFOA/PFNA and PFDA/PFUnDA. Furthermore, the
masses of PFDA and PFUnDA were significantly correlated only after the secondary treatment. In
Plant A, concentrations of odd-number PFCAs were greater than those of even-number PFCAs,
and concentration decreased with increasing chain length (from C8 to C12). A different pattern was
observed in sludge samples, in which the dominance of PFOA decreased, and PFDA and PFUnDA
increased, suggesting preferential partitioning of longer-chain PFCAs to sludge
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2006, 40 (5), pp 1408–1414

2006 -- Phytotoxic, clastogenic and bioaccumulation effects of the environmental endocrine
disruptor bisphenol A in various crops grown hydroponically
Planta, Volume 223, Number 5 / April, 2006

2006 --
Survey of Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Biosolids Destined for Land Application
In this study, the presence, composition, and concentrations of organic wastewater contaminants
(OWCs) were determined in solid materials produced during wastewater treatment. This study was
undertaken to evaluate the potential of these solids, collectively referred to as biosolids, as a
source of OWCs to soil and water in contact with soil. Nine different biosolid products, produced by
municipal wastewater treatment plants in seven different states, were analyzed for 87 different
OWCs. Fifty-five of the OWCs were detected in at least one biosolid product. The 87 different
OWCs represent a diverse cross section of emerging organic contaminants that enter wastewater
treatment plants and may be discharged without being completely metabolized or degraded. A
minimum of 30 and a maximum of 45 OWCs were detected in any one biosolid. The biosolids used
in this study are produced by several production methods, and the plants they originate from have
differing population demographics, yet the percent composition of total OWC content, and of the
most common OWCs, typically did not vary greatly between the biosolids tested. The summed OWC
content ranged from 64 to 1811 mg/kg dry weight. Six biosolids were collected twice, 3−18 months
apart, and the total OWC content of each biosolid varied by less than a factor of 2. These results
indicate that the biosolids investigated in this study have OWC compositions and concentrations
that are more similar than different and that biosolids are highly enriched in OWCs (as mass-
normalized concentrations) when compared to effluents or effluent-impacted water. These results
demonstrate the need to better describe the composition and fate of OWCs in biosolids since about
50% of biosolids are land applied and thus become a potentially ubiquitous nonpoint source of
OWCs into the environment.
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2006, 40 (23), pp 7207–7215

2000 -- Toxicologic evidence of developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals
Developmental neurotoxicity constitutes effects occurring in the offspring primarily as a result of
exposure of the mother during pregnancy and lactation. To exert their effect, these chemicals or
their metabolites must pass the placenta and/or the blood–brain barrier. In experimental animals,
exposure to neurotoxic chemicals during critical periods of brain development has induced
permanent functional disturbances in the CNS. Although available data suggest that proper animal
models exist, only few chemicals have been tested. Neurotoxicity testing is not required by national
authorities for classification of chemicals. Epidemiological evidence is very limited, but severe
irreversible effects have been observed in humans following in utero exposures to a few known
developmental neurotoxicants. The large number of chemicals with a potential for developmental
neurotoxicity in humans stresses the importance of generating basic kinetic data on these
chemicals based on relevant experimental models. First of all, data are needed on their ability to
pass the placenta and the developing blood–brain barrier, to accumulate, and to be metabolized in
the placenta and/or the fetus. These kinetic data will be essential in establishing a scientifically
based hazard evaluation and risk assessment.
Toxicology Volume 144, Issues 1-3, 3 April 2000, Pages 121-127

1998 -- Developmental neurotoxicology of endocrine disruptors and pesticides: identification of
information gaps and research needs.
There is increasing evidence that some environmental chemicals can interrupt neurodevelopmental
processes during critical periods of development, resulting in effects on sensory, motor, and
cognitive function. It is now generally accepted that developing organisms are differentially sensitive
to chemical exposure because of toxicokinetic and/or toxicodynamic factors. Regulatory
mechanisms have been implemented to protect humans from over- or inappropriate exposures to
environmental chemicals. Current regulatory practices, however, may be insufficient because of the
possibility that some environmental chemicals interfere with endocrine function at key periods of
neurodevelopment. In addition, a recent National Research Council (NRC) report on pesticide
contamination in the diets of infants and children concluded that current regulatory practices may
not sufficiently protect infants and children from the risk of pesticide exposure. The NRC report
indicates that regulatory agencies might underestimate the actual exposure of infants and children
to pesticides and rely too heavily on data from adults in the risk assessment of pesticides.
Consideration of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the differential susceptibility of infants and
children has led to identification of a number of information gaps and research needs that should
be addressed in order to improve future risk assessments for these chemicals.
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 June; 106(Suppl 3): 807–811.

1988 EPA Study -- Trace Organics and lnorganics in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges
Efforts to characterize major unknown organic components were limited to computer comparisons of
GC/MS peaks to the NBS mass spectral library. In none of the cases was a tentative identification
made. Manual review of those components with a high degree of fit with an NBS library compound
(>8O%) allowed probable compound class assignment for many peaks. Virtually all of the major
components classified appeared to be aliphatics or carboxylic acid type compounds. A majority of
the sample extracts exhibited a hydrocarbon "hump" in the ion chromatograms. The peaks
reviewed, therefore, were superimposed on this background. As a result, a significant portion of the
major peaks were multi-component peaks whose identities remain completely unknown.

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Jim Bynum, VP
Help for Sewage Victims