Only 7 states have applied for delegation of the Part 503 sludge policy. Apparently, the rest figured out it was an EPA
con Job because, the Sludge Rule (Biosolids) Part 503 is based on exclusions in federal law and an implied blanket
Federally authorized self-permit: 1)
RCRA -- Solid Waste does not include solid or dissolved material in
domestic sewage
-- between a residence and the treatment plant; 2) CWA -- A Point Source of pollution does not
include agricultural stormwater discharges
-- even if it contains sludge biosolids; 3) CERCLA (Superfund) -- A
does not include the normal application of fertilizer.-- even if contains listed hazardous substances;
and 4)
Part 503 preamble - It is not a release of hazardous substances if it is federally authorized -- even if it is
hazardous waste. Pathogens (
fecal colifrm) makes biosolids a hazardous waste under RCRA but pathogens are not a
part of the hazardous waste regulation.  
Hazardous substances also make biosolids a very hazardous waste because
only nine metals are tested for and most are well above the
hazardous waste levels.

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for biosolids

[Federal Register: April 14, 2004 (Volume 69, Number 72)] [Page 19848-19850]

Section 405(f) of the CWA, a state may apply to EPA for authority to administer the sewage sludge program
within its jurisdiction. EPA is required to approve each such submitted state program application
unless EPA determines that the program does not meet the requirements of those regulations, set forth
at 40 CFR part 501.

[Further,] as the generator of sewage sludge, the treatment works cannot limit its responsibility for the use and
disposal of the sewage sludge in compliance with the standards merely by transferring the sludge to a commercial
Chief Administrative Law Judge

Under part 501, before a state can issue a sludge biosolids permit, it must have federal approval. Only 7
states have the required approval.
See below.

§ 501.1   Purpose and scope.
(a) These regulations are promulgated under the authority of sections 101(e), 405(f), 501(a), and 518(e) of the CWA,
and implement the requirements of those sections.

(b) This part specifies the procedures EPA will follow in approving, revising, and withdrawing State sludge
management programs under section 405(f), and the requirements State programs must meet to be approved by the
Administrator under section 405(f) of CWA. Sludge Management Program submissions may be developed and
implemented under any existing or new State authority or authorities as long as they meet the requirements of this

(c) Any complete State Sludge Management Program submitted for approval under this part shall have the following
as a minimum:

(1) The authority to require compliance by any person who uses or disposes of sewage sludge with standards for
sludge use or disposal issued under section 405(d) of the CWA, including compliance by federal facilities;

(2) The authority to issue permits that apply, and ensure compliance with, the applicable requirements of section 405
of the Clean Water Act to any POTW or other treatment works treating domestic sewage, and procedures for
issuance of such permits;

(3) Provisions for regulating the use or disposal of sewage sludge by non-permittees;

(4) The authority to take actions to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects that may occur
from toxic pollutants in sewage sludge; and

(5) The authority to abate violations of the State sludge program, including civil and criminal penalties and other ways
and means of enforcement. Indian Tribes can satisfy criminal enforcement authority requirements under §501.25.

NPDES Permit Conditions
Sec. 122.2  Definitions.
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) means the national program for issuing, modifying, revoking
and reissuing, terminating, monitoring and enforcing permits, and imposing and enforcing pretreatment requirements,
under sections 307, 402, 318, and 405 of CWA. The term includes an ``approved program.''

Approved program or approved State means a State or interstate
program which has been approved or authorized by EPA under
part 123.

When sludge is applied in a State different from the one in which the sewage sludge was prepared, provide written
notice to the permitting authority (i.e., the
appropriate EPA Regional Office or State [if it has an approved sewage
sludge program
]) in which the bulk sewage sludge subject to CPLRs will be applied, prior to the initial application to
the site. The notice must include

Approved States to issue permits
Approved State
NPDES Permit
Approved to
Regulate Federal
Approved State
Pretreatment Program
General Permits
Approved Biosolids
(Sludge) Program
Subpart C_Permit Conditions

Sec. 122.49  Considerations under Federal law.

The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of permits under these rules. When any of
these laws is applicable, its procedures must be followed. When the applicable law requires consideration or

[[Page 227]]

of particular permit conditions or requires the denial of a permit, those requirements also must be followed.

(g) The National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq., may require preparation of an Environmental
Impact Statement and consideration of EIS-related permit conditions (other than effluent limitations) as provided in
Sec. 122.29(c).

(Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), Clean Air Act (42 U.
S.C. 7401 et seq.),
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.))

[48 FR 14153, Apr. 1, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 39620, Sept. 1, 1983; 49
FR 38050, Sept. 26, 1984]

PART 503.4  Relationship to other regulations.
Disposal of sewage sludge in a municipal solid waste landfill unit, as defined in 40 CFR 258.2, that
complies with the requirements in 40 CFR part 258 constitutes compliance with section 405(d) of the

§ 258.3   
Consideration of other Federal laws.
The owner or operator of a municipal solid waste landfill unit must comply with any other applicable
Federal rules, laws, regulations, or other requirements.

Appendix II to Part 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents  

§ 123.1   Purpose and scope.
(a) This part specifies the procedures EPA will follow in approving, revising, and withdrawing State
programs and the requirements State programs must meet to be approved by the Administrator under
sections 318, 402, and 40
5(a) (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System—NPDES) of the CWA. This part
also specifies the procedures EPA will follow in approving, revising, and withdrawing State programs under section
405(f) (sludge management programs) of the CWA.
The requirements that a State sewage sludge
management program must meet for approval by the Administrator under section 405(f) are set out at
40 CFR part 501.

(b) These regulations are promulgated under the authority of sections 304(i), 101(e), 405, and 518(e) of the CWA,
and implement the requirements of those sections.

(c) The Administrator will approve State programs which conform to the applicable requirements of this
A State NPDES program will not be approved by the Administrator under section 402 of CWA unless it has
authority to control the discharges specified in sections 318 and 405(a) of CWA. Permit programs under sections
318 and 405(a) will not be approved independent of a section 402 program.

(d)(1) Upon approval of a State program, the Administrator shall suspend the issuance of Federal
permits for those activities subject to the approved State program.
After program approval EPA shall retain
jurisdiction over any permits (including general permits) which it has issued unless arrangements have been made
with the State in the Memorandum of Agreement for the State to assume responsibility for these permits. Retention
of jurisdiction shall include the processing of any permit appeals, modification requests, or variance requests; the
conduct of inspections, and the receipt and review of self-monitoring reports. If any permit appeal, modification
request or variance request is not finally resolved when the federally issued permit expires, EPA may, with the
consent of the State, retain jurisdiction until the matter is resolved.

Missouri Clean Water Law

In simple terms, the Missouri Clean Water Law states that "it is a violation to allow the discharge of a
pollutant or contaminant to waters of the state" without a permit.

For practical purposes, sludge, biosolids and stormwater runoff from use or disposal sites are
considered pollutants.

The law authorizes the Missouri Clean Water Commission and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources
(DNR) to issue regulations, policies and guidelines to protect the quality of Missouri waters.

The agencies issue permits and treatment standards to enforce the requirements. The law authorizes the state to
adopt and enforce any requirements of the federal Clean Water Act.

Sludge standards for use or disposal
EPA regulations, under Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 503 (40 CFR 503), establish the minimum
national standards for the use and disposal of domestic sludge.

Persons who generate, use or dispose of sludge are required by regulation to follow these minimum
standards. EPA calls this a "self-implementing" rule because the standards are directly enforceable.

You must meet the deadlines in the law, even though the new requirements are not included in the National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit.

The regulations authorize the permit authority to be more restrictive on a case-by-case basis in order to address
local environmental conditions.