Potential for bacterial regrowth demonstrated in treated, reclaimed water.  In water-short areas reclaimed water must be
used for agricultural or other approved uses, and its potential for bacterial regrowth in reclaimed water used for crop
irrigation must be understood.  ARS scientists in Phoenix, AZ, assessed the survival and regrowth potential of bacteria
present in tertiary-treated effluent used for crop irrigation and surface water discharge as it passed through a model
laboratory distribution system.  Total bacteria increased 3 to 4 orders of magnitude, and that E. coli remained viable
during the 11-day experiment.  This research has established that although the reclaimed water met EPA standards for
irrigation at the wastewater treatment plant, there is great potential for bacterial regrowth during transport that could
place the water out of compliance at the point of intended use.  The information will help prevent future problems of
food contamination via wastewater irrigation.

Recycled water switched on at Bendigo Hospital - Australia

1998 -- National Research Council.
"reclaimed waste water can be used to supplement drinking-water sources, but only as a last resort and after a
thorough health and safety evaluation."
Uncertainties Must Be Addressed

Kelly Reynolds MSPH, Ph.D., Associate Professor , University of Arizona.
“From a scientist’s point of view, we can continue to develop and improve methods to identify hazards,” she said. “But
that information only goes so far if the public doesn’t actively participate in reducing their exposure.”

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) (smells like rotten eggs) and The Bacteria Which
Produce H2S in wage Sludge Biosolids, Reclaimed Water and Drinking Water




Never a good idea and still a very dangerous idea

Comments to California water resources control board on proposed October 2, 2007 workshop and draft of new
reclaimed water rules.

About animal testing with effluent, "there are ethical issues that have to be addressed before this type of testing can be
applied, and applicability to humans can vary." But, its OK to force people to drink it with no testing.

Australia: crackdown on recycled water after crop damage

Dr. Steve Oppenheimer's Warning on Reclaimed water

Foley & Lardner - United States - Regional Water Quality Control ...United States: Regional Water Quality Control
Board, San Diego Region, Proposes Strict Limitations On The Use Of Reclaimed Water At Golf Courses ...

Wastewater Found Flowing Into Drinking Water Lines in two homes, Cary, NC

Questions, Answers Related to Reclaimed Water Program, Cary, NC

Where have all the scientists gone?   Colform testing fraud.
What reporters don't know about coliform can hurt you!


During the 70s some 70 billion dollars was spent building sewage treatment plants to clean up our water and get
harmful disease organisms and chemicals out of the public environment. Now the waste regulators and industry are
resorting to a third world solution to dispose of sewage effluent and sludge where we and our children can not avoid
exposure. The question we need to ask is, how many of the 76 + million food poisoning cases annually are actually
caused by exposure from the following very dangerous wastewater reuse programs.

Waste regulators push sewage on unsuspecting public using bad science and a grin
The focus is on "non-disease causing coliform and heterotrophic " bacteria which no longer exist in treatment plants,
rather than the 1,407 deadly disease causing organisms that do pass through the treatment plants. Many of the
disease organism are now drug resistant and for some, there is no treatment.  EPA and the state regulatory authorities
imply that enterobacter, coliform, fecal coliform and total coliforms or somehow different from the 12 disease causing
bacteria that compose a coliform. The coliform test does not address very deadly
bacteria the regulatory authorities
forgot to mention or the even more deadly
viruses the regulatory authorities are ignoring, which they allow (promote) to
be spread on our food crops, parks, school grounds and lawns

California Water Board crackdown -- does not want
Future Discharges of Treated Wastewater to Russian River

Virginia -- How much e-coli should be in the water?


HAS EPA CREATED A COLIFORM PANDEMIC? 3 to 6 million children die each year

Australia: crackdown on recycled water after crop damage
Session 7 Wastewater treatment

Advanced technologies for municipal wastewater purification: technical and economic assessment*1

M. Abdel-Jawad, S. Ebrahim, M. Al-Tabtabaei and S. Al-Shammari

Water Desalination Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, PO Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait Tel. +976
487-8112/4; Fax +976 487-9238

Available online 7 November 2001.

References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must
purchase this article.

The water resources of Kuwait are limited to desalinated water to meet the requirements for all freshwater needs,
unreplenishable brackish water as a supplementary source for blending and agriculture, and municipal wastewater
which is treated and mainly discarded to the sea. Limited quantities of the treated effluents are utilized for agriculture
and greenery purposes. The large quantities of treated effluents have a great potential to replace the brackish water
supplies and to redress the balance of demand for irrigation water. Research work was carried out at the Kuwait
Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to assess the technical viability and economic feasibility of implementing reverse
osmosis (RO) technology to renovate Kuwait's treated wastewater effluent. This paper describes the adopted
treatment, alternative pretreatment, characteristics of the permeate and cost of the renovation treatment. The results
indicate that municipal wastewater can be treated by advanced technologies to produce an excellent water which is
almost devoid of salts, pollutants and microorganisms. The total cost of such treatment is estimated to be almost half of
the distillate cost produced by multistage flash (MSF) plants, whereas the cost of treating the tertiary treated
wastewater alone by additional advanced treatment constitutes only 25% of the MSF distillate costs. The Government
of the State of Kuwait has decided to implement this technology in constructing a wastewater treatment and reclamation
plant at Sulaibiya in the context of privitization to produce an effluent of a quality that can be considered an additional
water resource for non-potable uses.

Author Keywords: Desalination; Reverse Osmosis; Treatment; Microfiltration; Water Quality

Article Outline
• References
Reclamation of Secondary Treated Effluent
Using a Multiple Membrane System

Singapore is currently ranked 6th in the world's list of water-short countries. We have virtually exploited all the
conventional sources of water available from our natural catchment. In view of this, there is an urgent need to explore
unconventional sources of water to augment our limited water supply. Treated sewage has been known to be a stable
source of water in terms of its quality and quantity. This observation would suggest that there is an incentive to develop
the relevant technology to reclaim high-quality water from treated effluent. A review of literature suggests that a multiple
physical barrier system (MPB) consisting of a micro-filtration (MF) unit coupled with a Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit could
potentially be suitable for reclaiming high-quality water from secondary sewage effluent. A MPB system has many
advantages over other treatment systems. High-quality water can potentially be produced at a reasonable cost when
the system is employed to renovate secondary/tertiary treated wastewater effluent. It requires less space and is more
stable when compared to other systems such as those based on biological processes. It is possible to remove more
than 99.9999% of the viruses and bacteria present in the feed water.

The key to the success of a MPB system lies in the inclusion of an efficient pre-treatment system. Poorly-designed pre-
treatment and inadequate plant maintenance has often resulted in RO membrane failure. RO membranes are very
sensitive to blockage by fine particles. Conventional feed pre-treatment techniques such as sand filters, cartridge
filters, chlorination, and flocculation. are not capable of removing suspended solids, bacteria, and colloids adequately
to prevent RO fouling.

The Wastewater Biotreatment Group (WBG) at the Department of Civil Engineering, NUS, has initiated a series of
studies to examine the capability and reliability of a MPB system in producing high-quality product water that can meet
or even surpass surface water quality standards. The MPB system consists of a Micro-Filtration unit (MF) and a
Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit (Fig.1). The projects are being jointly carried out with two industrial partners and is
organized in three phases to address different issues of design and operation of the MPB system. These are the MF
optimization, RO optimization, and challenge test phases.

The MF optimization phase is focussed on the development of an operation protocol to produce an effluent suitable for
feeding into the RO unit. This involves varying the operational parameters of the MF units and implementation of
appropriate pre-treatment to the secondary treated effluent, if necessary. The effects of flowrate and cleaning interval
on Transmembrane Pressure (TMP) are also being investigated.

The RO optimization phase forms the main body of the study. The operating parameters of the RO unit are being
varied to optimize the performance of RO, so as to establish the optimal operation protocol. A spiral wound RO unit is
presently being investigated.

The final phase of the research study would be to conduct the challenge tests. The challenge test phase would be
scheduled after the multi-membrane process train has stabilized. The main aim of the challenge test is to stress the RO
unit so as to assess its operational characteristics and its capacity to reduce contaminants. Challenge tests are
conducted by introducing a known quantity of given substances (bacteria, total coliform, etc.) into the influent of the
MPB train. The characteristics of the effluents produced by the various units are studied to assess the operational
behaviour in response to the challenge tests conducted. This project was carried out in collaboration with Assoc Prof
SL Ong and Dr JY Hu.