Naegleria fowleri links
It was first described by Fowler and Carter from South Australia in 1965, who presented four
Reported sources for Naegleria include soil, water, cooling towers,nasal and throat swabs, sewage sludge,
hospital hydrothermal pools, and swimming pools. The most pathogenic species, N. fowleri has been isolated
frequently from thermally polluted water and sewage wastes
the virulent human pathogen, Naegleria fowleri, was isolated from a pond in Georgia, a sewage treatment plant in
Missouri, and from the Potomac and Anacostia rivers near and in Washington, D.C. Widely scattered, sparse
populations seemed only a potential threat to human health at the time of sampling. The data support an
estimate that the sites sampled contain 10,000 typical, low temperature, bactivorous amoebae for each heat
tolerant amoeba able to grow at 45° C. Heat tolerant competitors were much more common than N. fowleri.
Naegleria lovaniensis, which is heat tolerant but nonpathogenic, was isolated from and downstream from an open
air thermal pollution temperature gradient. Hot piles of composting sewage sludge yielded no amoeboflagellates,
many heat tolerant (45–49° C) amoebae, and one thermophilic (52° C) Acanthamoeba.
Pathogens posing problems in drinking water are Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba hystolytica, Cryptosporidium,
and Naegleria fowleri (AWWA, 1990). Human Consumption: The maximum contaminant level goal (not
enforced) for protozoans is zero cysts per 100 ml sample of drinking water. The maximum contaminant level
(MCL) is simply whatever level the best available technology can achieve (Kubek et al., 1990).
Nonpoint source: Agriculture: Protozoan cysts may originate in livestock excrement from barnyards,
pastures, rangelands, feedlots, and uncontrolled manure storage areas; and areas of land application of
manure and sewage sludge. [biosolids]
This report is the first of PAM in an animal, a South American tapir. Dry cough, lethargy, and coma developed in
the animal, and its condition progressed to death. At necropsy, lesions were seen in the cerebrum, cerebellum,
1999 Corps of Engineers
In agricultural areas where runoff from feedlots or from fields treated with manure or sewage sludge is a
problem, management practices that minimize or eliminate the opportunity for these materials to enter waterways
during periods of high runoff should be encouraged
Naegleria fowleri causes Amoebic meningoencephalitis -- Fatal brain inflammation
Health Stream Article - Issue 28 December 2002
Naegleria Deaths In Arizona
Residents of the Arizona towns of Peoria and Glendale have been shocked by the deaths of
two five-year old boys from amoebic meningitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. http://www.waterquality.crc.org.
This is in Mohave County Arizona where 50 families that have been found to be ill from sludge (item 63
PHOENIX -- A 14-year-old Lake Havasu boy has become the sixth victim to die nationwide this year of a
microscopic organism that attacks the body through the nasal cavity, quickly eating its way to the brain.