Signs and Symptoms of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
by C.Olvera March 13th, 2008 @ 05:59 AM
Informative Post - Toledo,OH,USA

Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a condition that affects children under the age of 10. It is most common in children ages
6 months to 4 years. It is characterized by acute kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. It is the most
common cause of acute kidney failure in children. Hemolytic uremic syndrome was first described in 1955 by Gasser
and coworkers.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome is also known as hamburger disease because it is most often caused by a type
E. coli bacteria. Hemolytic uremic syndrome can also be associated with Shigella and Salmonella. Ninety
percent of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases are caused by infectious viruses such as diarrhea. The
infectious diseases produce toxic substances that destroy red blood cells. The other ten percent is
caused by upper respiratory infection. Transmission can be made by person to person contact, public
water supplies and by petting a cow.

Signs and symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome are abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, blood in stool, pallor,
tiredness, irritability, severe anemia, bruising, mouth lining hemorrhages, reduced urine, hypertension,
edema, swollen feet, swollen hands, kidney failure, hematemesis, hemorrhagic skin spots, convulsions,
reduced blood platelet count, kidney disease, seizures, weakness on one side of body, drowsiness,
enlarged liver and spleen, increased liver enzymes and abnormal red blood cell shape.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome is associated with
varicella, echovirus, Coxsackie’s A and B, streptococcus
pneumoniae, clostridium difficile, AIDS, cancer and chemotherapy.

Treatment may include red blood cell transfusions, platelet transfusions, plasma exchange and kidney dialysis.
Complications of hemolytic uremic syndrome include high blood pressure, chronic kidney failure, heart
problems, stroke and coma. The death rate is 5-15%. This rate is higher in older children and adults, which
have a worse prognosis.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome use to be very rare, but the number of cases has been increasing in children
over the years.

this article has been brought to you by
Journal of Food Protection
Article: pp. 1365–1370 | Abstract
Volume 67, Issue 7 (July 2004)

Persistence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soil and on Leaf Lettuce and Parsley Grown in Fields
Treated with Contaminated Manure Composts or Irrigation Water

1. Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797, 2. Department
of Horticulture, University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia 31793, 3. Animal Waste
Pathogens Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research
Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 001, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, 4. Department of Food Science and
Human Nutrition, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, USA

Outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with lettuce and other leaf crops have
occurred with increasing frequency in recent years. Contaminated manure and polluted irrigation water are probable
vehicles for the pathogen in many outbreaks. In this study, the occurrence and persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in soil
fertilized with contaminated poultry or bovine manure composts or treated with contaminated irrigation water and on
lettuce and parsley grown on these soils under natural environmental conditions was determined. Twenty-five plots,
each 1.8 by 4.6 m, were used for each crop, with five treatments (one without compost, three with each of the three
composts, and one without compost but treated with contaminated water) and five replication plots for each treatment.
Three different types of compost, PM-5 (poultry manure compost), 338 (dairy manure compost), and NVIRO-4 (alkaline-
stabilized dairy manure compost), and irrigation water were inoculated with an avirulent strain of E. coli O157:H7.
Pathogen concentrations were 107 CFU/g of compost and 105 CFU/ml of water. Contaminated compost was applied to
soil in the field as a strip at 4.5 metric tons per hectare on the day before lettuce and parsley seedlings were
transplanted in late October 2002. Contaminated irrigation water was applied only once on the plants as a treatment in
five plots for each crop at the rate of 2 liters per plot 3 weeks after the seedlings were transplanted.
E. coli O157:H7
persisted for 154 to 217 days in soils amended with contaminated composts and was detected on lettuce
and parsley for up to 77 and 177 days, respectively, after seedlings were planted. Very little difference was
observed in E. coli O157:H7 persistence based on compost type alone. E. coli O157:H7 persisted longer (by
>60 days) in soil covered with parsley plants than in soil from lettuce plots, which were bare after lettuce
was harvested. In all cases, E. coli O157:H7 in soil,  regardless of source or crop type, persisted for >5
months after application of contaminated compost or irrigation water.