DRINKING WATER +
          Sewage, sludge-biosolids and reclaimed water
              So, you think your drinking water is safe?
By Jim Bynum                                                                                                                                                                                                      8/3/2008
Retired Safety Consultant
VP. Help for Sewage Victims

The apparent scientific consensus is that our drinking water is safe, based on regular colifom bacteria tests.  As an
example, in June 2008, the town of Hadley, MA.  took 15 drinking water samples and nine were contaminated with
coliform bacteria. According to
Diane Lederman, writing in the July 12th issue of, THE REPUBLICAN, unidentified
officials said, "No fecal coliform was detected, and there is no health risk with the coliform." A little joke here since the
fecal coliform test is run at 15 degrees higher temperature than the coliform test. Most of the pathogenic coliform are
inactivated at the higher temperature.

That may have been partially true 100 years ago. What these unidentified officials don't know may kill you or make you
wish you were dead. Having watched a
family farm being destroyed by coliform, (E. coli & Salmonella) I can assure you
there is an extreme health risk from coliform. A neighboring City owned solid waste disposal sludge farm not only
allowed coliform contaminated water to run off on the family farm, but it allowed the coliform contaminated water runoff
into the Missouri River where the next down river drinking water treatment plant had to deal with it -- if it was capable of
doing so. Let's not forget Arsenic, Aluminium and fecal groundwater contamination.

Data from the Houston Medical School show coliform “have earned a reputation placing them among the most
pathogenic and most often encountered organisms in clinical microbiology. They are the causative agents of such
diseases as meningitis, bacillary dysentery, typhoid, and food poisoning.”

Ineffective treatment and mismanaged disposal of solid waste (sewage sludge/biosolids/reclaimed water) is the major
threat to drinking water, human health and the environment. "As President Johnson observed when he signed the Solid
Waste Disposal Act in 1965, “Rachel Carson once wrote, ‘In biological history, no organism has survived long if its
environment became in some way unfit for it, but no organism before man deliberately polluted its own environment."
Furthermore, "In the chain of disease leading from waste to humans, the major point of attack must be those wastes
which contain disease agents or serve as sources of propagation for carriers of disease. Wastes must be so handled
or treated that the pathogens they contain are destroyed, not merely reduced in numbers, and carriers of pathogens
denied access to the wastes for breeding or sustenance."

Local officials may be confused because EPA states in official publications, "Total coliforms are a group of closely
related bacteria that are (with few exceptions) not harmful to humans." It becomes even more confusing for officials
when universities propagate the lie. Such is the case with the  
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA  ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY NEWSLETTER
which states, "Coliforms are bacteria that live and
replicate in the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and thus they are a normal constituent of
fecal material.
In general, coliform bacteria do not cause disease in humans."  However, when EPA
sewage/drinking water pathogen expert
Mark Meckes was ask to comment, he said, "The total coliform group consists
of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family
Enterobacteriaceae."  

We can forget the
EPA PR  and the official line that coliform are not harmful to humans. Twelve of the
Enterobacteriaceae genera that compose a coliform are  human disease causing pathogenic enteric bacteria that pass
through the gut:
ESCHERICHIA COLI, SHIGELLA, EDWARDSIELLA, SALMONELLA, CITROBACTER, KLEBSIELLA,
ENTEROBACTER, SERRATIA, PROTEUS, MORGANELLA, PROVIDENCIA and YERSINIA. The questions are: 1) are
these bacteria genera safe enough at two million per gram of sludge biosolids to dispose of on grazing land or food
crops; 2) what exactly is a fecal coliform; and 3) will they leave the disposal site and contaminate our drinking water?

The search for truth about coliform led to the federal Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), which adopted
the simple colifom test in 1914 to indicate the presence of fecal contamination in food and water. According to HHS,
"Coliform is not a taxonomic classification but rather a working definition  used to describe a family of Gram-negative,
facultative anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria that ferments lactose to produce acid and gas within 48 h at 35°C.
The original
colifom group tested at 35°C included E. coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter.
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-4.html            They were Indicators for:

Five years later, D. H. BERGEY, Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Pennsylvania, noted in 1919 that, "The maximum
temperature for the pathogenic bacteria is about 45°C. Their optimum temperature is about 37.50C."


The world of microbiology has changed. The
Nocardia bacteria was a nonpathogenic thermophile in 1919 with  
optimum growth temperature at about 50.0 C.,. It was 1928 before
Frederick Griffith  discovered a live non-pathogenic
bacteria could pick up the virulence factor (DNA) from a dead bacteria. Now we know virulence and antibiotic resistant
factors can be transferred in wastewater treatment plants. As an example, Nocardia now  causes foaming in wastewater
treatment plants and attacks the central nervous system in humans including brain abscesses."
Neil Massart, process
engineer for the engineering firm of  Black & Veatch, states, "Excessive foaming is a serious problem that seems to be
becoming more prevalent among anaerobic digesters throughout North America. Researchers attribute increased
foaming to the rise in advanced biological treatment processes and corresponding changes in the quantity and
characteristics of waste activated sludge (WAS)."  If it is foaming the treatment plant can not accomplish its mission.

As noted ealier, the original colifom group tested at 35°C included E. coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter.  
Yet, According to FDA, "Fecal coliform analyses are done at 45.5°C for food testing, except for water, shellfish and
shellfish harvest water analyses, which use 44.5°C" "E. coli is a member of the family
Enterobacteriaceae , which
includes many genera, including known pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia. Although most strains of
E. coli are not regarded as pathogens, they can be opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in
immunocompromised hosts".
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-4.html

CDC admits even its own microbiologists are confused by the current PR program on E.coli as an opportunistic  
pathogen. CDC says, "Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although   
most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause  diarrhea, while others  
cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and  other illnesses. Still other kinds of E. coli are  
used as markers for water contamination—so  you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are
not  themselves harmful,  but indicate the water is contaminated. It does get a bit confusing—even to microbiologists."
http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/stec_gi.html#1

If microbiologist are confused, how can we expect our treatment plant officials to know the truth or the
sludge biosolids contractors who assures farmers their farm and families will be safe?

HOW CAN THE DISINFORMATION ON COLIFORM AFFECT YOUR LIFE?

Fecal coliform is the current EPA  term for  the small minority of gram negative gas producing pathogenic coliform
bacteria that survive and grow at  the extreme upper temperature range of Mesophiles during a test at 44.5° C. (112.1°
F).  On the surface, it would  appear fecal coliform is not a real concern to us in food or drinking water since your are
dead by the time an internal temperature of 42.5° C. (108.5° F) is reached and your blood is said to coagulate at 42.6°
C (108.68° F). It becomes a major concern when official documents claim sewage sludge biosolids are safe to use as a
fertilizer for grazing land and food crops because tests only show about  2 million of the fecal coliform bacteria growing
at extreme temperature in each gram of biosolids. That does not include "Campylobacter species [which] have the
highest reported temperature for growth of bacteria isolated from clinical material. They have been known to grow at
temperatures of up to 45°C."

But then EPA knew something else we didn't know which could kill us, thermophilic bacteria have also become
pathogens.   According to CHARLES S. RABKIN, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences
Center, Denver, in 1984 "We studied a group of 31 bacterial isolates from clinical specimens, received by the Centers
for Disease Control since 1961, which have been denoted thermophilic for their unusual ability to grow at 50°C.
Microbiological characteristics were determined for the group, and an assessment of their clinical significance was
made based on retrospective chart review. These bacteria are all gram-negative, nonfermentative, nonsporulating
rods, most of which grow better at 42 or 50°C than at 35°C. Some of the bacteria could be implicated as the etiological
agents for meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. Thermophilic bacteria should be considered potential pathogens
when isolated from appropriate clinical specimens."

The use of the coliform test (which includes E. coli) is a money saving public relations ploy to fool the public. Why in the
world  would a fecal indicator test be used to test known fecal material? Furthermore, gene transfer between organisms
in the treatment plants and disposal of sewage sludge and effluent on land may be a factor in developing the new
superbugs (including E. coli) that cause necrotizing pneumonia, which can kill you within 72 hours, as well as the
environmental distribution through the community in drinking water.

It is scary to think these experts, professionals, and  drinking water officials don't know the meaning of the term
coliform. It is even more scary to think they do. Acording to Cornell veterinarians, "The invasion of one or more
quarters of a cows udder by bacteria of the type called coliforms can produce life threatening illness. These bacteria,
E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Citrobacter may live in the barn environment in bedding, runways or water
troughs." "Following the entrance of coliform bacteria the cow may have sudden onset of fever, loss of appetite,
diarrhea, shivering and may go down. This is due to the poisons produced by the bacteria entering the cows blood and
lymph systems. Later the infected quarter may swell and be warm and painful. The discharge may be watery or bloody
or there may be large thick clots. Most cows with
coliform mastitis that survive will have little residual damage but a
few become chronic or lose the affected quarter and some are culled due to continued poor health."
.http://www.thewatchers.us/FC_Mastitis.html

The wastewater experts at EPA and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) claim E. coli does not infect cattle, yet,
sludge biosolids with high levels of fecal colifom in it are used to fertilize grazing land. Do you think there is a
connection? When cattle get sick,the culled animals are sent to the slaughterhouse and we get E. coli in our meat.
Reclaimed water and sludge biosolids with coliform in them are used to irrigate and fertilizer our crops and we get
contaminated vegetables. That is reflected in the number of
food poisoning cases which sky rocketed from 2 million in
1986 to 81 million in 1997. It is also reflected in the 100 million dollar lost on spinach (E. coli) in 2006 and the 200
million dollar loss on tomatoes (Salmonella) in 2008

While I hate to think it could be true, it would appear the expert officials have taken a page from
Adolf Hitler's playbook,
"Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they will believe it." EPA's
John Walker explained the
PR process to WEF in 1994. They also use the best Public Relation firms money can buy to convince the public that
exposure to pathogens and toxins in sewage (sludge and reclaimed water) will not cause health problems. However, the
expert officials forgot one mistake in judgement Hitler made when he said, "What good fortune for governments that the
people do not think." The American People have a long history of thinking, especially when they are pissed off by
dishonest  government employees who are expected to be honest. Without honorable people in government there can
be no democracy and there is no interest in health protection for the poor.

A case in point, government officials and municipalities are so interested in protecting you from second hand smoke
that may harm you 10 to 15 years down the road, they pass laws to prevent your exposure. That may be well and good.
However, they will lie, cheat and steal, to expose you to known and extremely dangerous
carcinogenic metals,
chemicals, and pathogens in sludge biosolids that cause all of the known health effects attributed to cigarette smoke
and more. As an example, by federal law any solid waste (sludge/biosolids) containing chemicals or pathogens that will
 
cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating  
reversible, illness; or  pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when
improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed,
is a hazardous waste, except, when
it is disposed of on agricultural land, food crops, parks, school grounds, lawns and gardens as a
fertilizer or soil amendment.

Milwaukee is an example of  what can go wrong and will go wrong in a treatment plant when they rely on a coliform test.
During a 1993 drinking water outbreak ,according to researchers, "When disease case estimates were adjusted for
normal background diarrheal disease rates, investigators estimated that 403,000 residents of the five-county area
experienced illness caused by the cryptosporidiosis outbreak (6). Of this group, an estimated 354,600 persons (88%)
did not seek medical attention; 44,000 persons (11%) were seen as outpatients; and 4,400 persons (1%) were
hospitalized."  Various estimates for deaths have ranged from just a few to over 400.  Most researcher have put deaths
at over a hundred.  CDC's Emerging Infectious Diseases/Volume 3 Number 4/October-December 1997, reported that
some samples that were taken from infected people during the 1993 Milwaukee outbreak showed a human type of
crytosporidium. "Furthermore, of the isolates tested in experimental infection studies, none could successfully infect
laboratory animals."  
In 1997, "In looking for a cheap way to disposal of contaminated sewage sludge, Milwaukee
Metropolitan Sewage District (MMSD)has turned five public parks and about 25 school yards into hazardous
waste open dumps. After 80+ years (1927) of dumping contaminated sewage sludge (biosolids) on the public as
Milorganite, MMSD final got caught creating a superfund site. " "MMSD claims Milorganite PCBs, or polychlorinated
biphenyls, contaminated sludge was given to the City Parks Department because it didn't have enough nitrogen in it to
be sold as a fertilizer." No one has yet determined where the crytosporidium was caused by Milwaukee's Class B
biosolids program or sewage effluent from the wastewater treatment plant.

Which brings up the second hazard for drinking water treatment plants, contaminated sewage effluent released to
water. In North Carolina, as of August 1, 2008, the
Laurinburg - Maxton airport "wastewater treatment plant has failed
every state water toxicity test this year, resulting in at least $6,000 in additional fines, said Belinda Henson, a
spokeswoman for the state Division of Water Quality."  
In Virginia, about 72-hundred miles of river are polluted by fecal
bacteria or other substances." "State regulators  have proposed increasing the acceptable amount of fecal bacteria [E.
coli] in Virginia's streams, rivers and lakes." "State Department of Environmental Quality staff members, who advise the
board, have said it makes sense to relax the bacteria limit because it's almost impossible to meet the standard in many
waterways. DEQ staffers have said the relaxed limits would still protect the public." In California sewage effluent is
called
reclaimed water because it can not be released to the rivers. Yes, "Even the reclaimed sewage effluent used for
irrigation is dangerous to be discharged into rivers during the dry season according to a University of California study.
The study states," NSD's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit issued by the San Francisco Bay
Regional Water Quality Control Board provides for the discharge of treated wastewater into the adjacent Napa River
during the wet season(November through April), but during the dry season (May through October) river discharge is
prohibited." "During the non-discharge period, water is recycled for irrigation purposes or stored for wet season
discharge."

We will not discuss wastewater violations, outdated plants, treatment failures, flooded treatment plants or untrained
operators. However, two example of well operated treatment plants should illustrate why sewage effluent: i.e., sludge
biosolids and reclaimed water used near people are not safe disposal methods.

EPA's Mark Meckes warned of the coming antibiotic resistant problem in 1982. He said, "In 1959, Watanabe (31)
discovered that some Escherichia coli strains could transfer antibiotic resistance to antibiotic-sensitive strains of
Shigella spp. Subsequent research has demonstrated that bacteria carrying transmissible R-factors are responsible for
the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance among members of the
Enterobacteriaceae (such as E. coli, Salmonella
typhi, and Shigella dysenteriae) Aeromonas and Yersinia species (4), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21),
and Vibrio cholerae (34)."  We don't know which of the  
1,407 human pathogen species may be in sludge at any given
time.

"In May 2006,
University of Minnesota researchers published data showing that extremely high numbers of multi-drug
resistant bacteria  (173) in effluent (treated water) at high levels are being released into the environment from highly
efficient, award winning, sewage wastewater treatment plants. Researchers were very concerned when they found
extremely fast transfer of the drug resistant gene between bacteria in the treatment plant which confirmed EPA studies
from the 80s. They appeared to be somewhat confused because the bacteria taken out of the treated water were not
detectable in sludge."

In 1998,  CDC estimated there were 360 million cases of acute diarrhea, most from unknown source of exposure and
(1987 estimate) 9,100 deaths annually. In a 1999 modified CDC estimate, there were
76 million cases of foodborne
illnesses that caused 5,000 deaths. It is a serious concern when we have 284 million case of acute diarrhea from an
unknown source, such as drinking water. The American Water Works Association (AWWA / M-48 manual) explained the
unknown source in 1999,
"The vast majority of waterborne outbreaks of salmonellosis are classified as acute
gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology." "Shigella Drinking water outbreaks occur year around,"
It is
also a serious concern that CDC failed to update the numbers in the last nine or 10 years. Could it be that EPA's
sewage disposal policies effecting drinking water has something to do with this failure?

In 1988, EPA acknowledge only
5 pathogenic bacteria that could be found in sludge biosolids: Campylobacter,
Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio Cholerae and claimed four would only cause
gastroenteritis, except
Salmonella would also cause enteric fever and Vibro Cholerae would only cause cholera. In 2003,
EPA's David Lewis,
et.al surveyed the neighbors of a number of sludge biosolids disposal sites and found "A prevalence of Staphylococcus
aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected,
including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia)." Lewis also found that some bacteria and viruses require a higher
level of disinfection that waste water or drinking water treatment plants provide. Yet, EPA classifies these farm sludge
biosolids disposal sites as non-point sources of pollution and authorized the disposal of sludge biosolids at 98-99.5%
liquid on a slope 10 meters from the waters of the United States. If the liquid biosolids do not drain into the water, any
rain will carry the pathogens into the water.
Staphylococcus (MRSA) is one of the heterotrophic bacteria known to slip
through the drinking water treatment process.

Escherichia coli bacteria, the primary coliform and a heterotrophic bacteria, have been genetically modified  to produce
biofuel,  to produce bixin-a plant product used in many foods and cosmetics, to produce the human protein insulin,
fermentative production, for prescreening antineoplastic agents, etc. I haven't found where any drinking water coliform
test can tell one type of E. coli from another. Not only that, but the most deadly form of modified E, coli, (0157:H7), does
not show up in a standard coliform test. What is even disturbing is that EPA's
drinking water coliform tests are enzyme-
based test which suppress
Aeromonas spp bacteria. It is virtually identical to coliform. "Bacteraemia (bacteria in the
blood) is the most common pathogenic manifestation of Aeromonas in humans. Mild symptoms include fever and chills,
but patients who become septic (overwhelming bacterial infection) with Aeromonas often exhibit abdominal pain,
nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Reports of Aeromonas wound infections have appeared increasingly in the literature.
Unlike gastroenteritis, these infections can have fatal or serious debilitating outcomes, such as amputations.
Aeromonas wounds fall into three categories, listed in order of increasing severity of damage caused: cellulitis,
myonecrosis, and ecthyma gangrenosum."

If you are like me, you sometimes make assumptions about people as well as the meaning of their words. My first
assumption was that "
immunocompromised hosts" meant these hosts (animals or humans) were born with a defective
immune system. According to the medical community, that's not true, in fact if you are immunocompromised you may
already be involved with one of the so called opportunistic pathogens or hazardous substance toxins and  even getting
treatment for the disease. According to the
Medicine Net definition, " Immunocompromised: [is] Having an immune
system that has been impaired by disease or treatment." That being said, it does not make sense that the drinking
water test would suppress one of the most deadly bacteria.

A second assumption I had was that in testing at 44.5°C, a lack of
, or even a small amount of fecal coliform offered
some level of health protection from pathogens in food or water. After all, 44.5°C appears to be well below our body
temperature of 98.6.  However, in reviewing the conversion charts, 44.5 degree Celsius converts to 112.1 degree
Fahrenheit. That indicates that the so called fecal coliform grow best at 4 or 5 degrees above the temperature level
that will kill you, about 108 degrees Fahrenheit. You have to wonder why the federal agencies charged with protecting
your health would want to test food and water for a few thermotolerant bacteria that grow best after you are dead?

A third assumption I had was that inactivation of the coliform or fecal coliform or othe pathogens by some method of
treatment actually killed harmful pathogens as the official experts proclaim. Inactivation does not mean dead
pathogens. The
disinfectant treatment processes simply do not kill pathogens. Many become viable, but nonculturable.  
The AWWA states,
"Biofilms are patches or masses of living and/or dead microorganisms that accumulate inside water
storage reservoirs or pipelines. Because treated water is not sterile, some degree of biofilms exists in all systems.
Other types of organisms or material can be "sandwiched" between layers in the biofilm, including nematodes, algae,
bacteria, pathogens, fungi, and mineral deposits." "
Heterotrophic bacterial growth or regrowth usually occurs when the
disinfectant residual drops below 0.2 mg/L, the water temperature is greater than 40° F (10° C), and AOC is greater
than 50 ug/L.
Biological filtration, if practiced, can reduce AOC in filtered, distributed water. This may
reduce, but not necessarily eliminate, bacterial regrowth in the distribution system." "
The number of HPC
bacteria in drinking water can be as high as 10,000/mL in the absence of a free chlorine residual, high turbidity, and
the warm water temperatures of summer. HPC bacteria indicate a deterioration in drinking water quality."

While AWWA only looks at 16 pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria, it reports a major bacterial problem in
drinking water treatment processes. Excerpts:
"
Flavobacterium species appear to be chlorine-resistant". "Mycobacterium marinum was reported to be
resistant to 10 mg/L free chlorine. No reduction in mycobacterial numbers was found following chlorination
in the water treatment plant examined."
"Klebsiella can encapsulate, which provides some protection from
disinfectants." "
The accumulation of microbial slime and sludge that supports and protects Legionella bacteria in
these systems must be reduced.
" "Serratia frequently can be isolated from treated water because these
organisms are more chlorine-resistant than many nonpigmented aerobic,
heterotrophic bacteria -- this
organism passes through conventional treatment barriers," " Numerous reports suggest the
staphylococci
are more resistant to ultraviolet light (UV) radiation at ambient temperature
than Salmonella and Escherichia
coli, and
require 45 minutes or more contact time. Filtration of surface waters may entrap significant
numbers of these heterotrophic bacteria but some will pass through water treatment barriers."


The AWWA only looked at the effects of drinking water treatment on 8 viruses.
It is interesting that papillomas virus which has infected 25 million young girls and women is not
discussed. Excerpts:
"They found that adenovirus type 5 was more resistant to all disinfection treatments than poliovirus 1, but less resistant
than either HAV or human rotavirus." "Currently no methods for isolating astroviruses in cell cultures are routine."
"Human caliciviruses currently cannot be routinely cultured in vitro using animal tissues or animal cell lines.
"
"Human caliciviruses and hepatitis E virus have caused numerous waterborne disease outbreaks"
"Coxsackieviruses appear to be more resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection than the other
enteroviruses." "HAV is one of the more persistent enteric viruses in the environment. Inactivation rates
in feces, sewage, water, soil, and sediments are so slow that infectious viruses may persist for months to
years" "Because SRSVs cannot be grown in cell culture, nothing is known about survival of intact and
potentially infectious SRSVs in the environment."

The AWWA also looked at the effects of drinking water treatment on  18    
parasites
Excerpts

Apparently, two of the parasites don't appear in the United States yet. (why would they include these?)
Disinfection studies have not been carried out on six.

"Scattered reports based on experimental laboratory data suggest that Acanthamoeba spp. are more resistant to
chlorine than Naegleria spp." "Chlorine and chloramine disinfectants are ineffective against Ascaris ova." "The same
direct microscopic examination approach used for other protozoan parasites (amoebas and flagellates), can be used
for B. coli; however, the same potential problems exist. These problems include lack of specific monoclonal-based
reagents for high specificity and recovery problems related to low organism numbers." "
Blastocystis hominis  (protozoa)
No information on documented waterborne outbreaks is available" "Watersheds should be managed to limit the
introduction of Cryptosporidium into drinking water supplies." "When filter effluent turbidity ranged between 0.1 and 0.3
ntu, Cryptosporidium presence was as much as 90 percent (1 log) greater than when filter effluent turbidity was 0.1 ntu
or less." "Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests water can transmit Cyclospora, especially because of the one- to
two-week sporulation time." "Examination of the chlorinated drinking water, consisting of river and municipal water, at
the camp demonstrated the presence of Cyclospora oocysts." "In 1989, amebiasis was reportable in 47 of the 50
states. Only a very biased subset of infections are reported; however, surveillance data are difficult to interpret."
"
Giardia - multiple-barrier system also must include watershed protection and distribution system
maintenance as part of any plan designed to protect the health of the water consumer.
" "T. gondii oocysts
are highly resistant to environmental influences and
survive freezing and drying. They are also resistant to ammonia,
chlorine, and commonly used disinfectants, including formalin
. They are killed by heat (70° C) but will survive
for 30 minutes at 56° C.

One important point the AWWA made was that no causative  agent has been found for waterborne outbreaks of acute
chronic diarrhea. They say, "Nonbloody diarrhea with a medium frequency of 12 stools a day persisted in 87 percent of
patients after 6 months"

Drink Water Systems are put at risk by a small group of people's actions at EPA Office of Wastewater.
The  latest
EPA Compliance report on drinking water systems states:
  • The vast majority of the 132,573 violations (there may be more than one violation at each noncomplying system)
    the states reported to SDWIS/FED in 2004 were for a public water system’s significant failure to monitor and
    report, rather than health-based MCL or treatment technique violations detected and reported by a system.

  • EPA designated 16,688 PWS as significant noncompliers. Over 90% of these systems served fewer than 3,300
    users. During the 2004 calendar year, States and EPA addressed 4,392 significant noncompliers (SNCs). 36% of
    the SNCs addressed were newly identified SNCs in 2004.

  • Approximately 22,500 (21%) out of over 106,000 non-community water systems had significant violations.

  • Fifty-two (21%) out of 248 larger non-community water systems serving more than 3,300 users had significant
    violations. Together these 52 non-community systems served only about 464,000 (1.9%) users of the 24 million
    users served by non-community water systems.

  • Approximately 18,700 (36%) out of the over 52,000 community water systems had significant violations. Of the
    272 million users served in their primary residence by community water systems, approximately 69 million
    received their water from one of the violating community water systems.

  • Approximately 2,100 (25%) of the more than 8,600 larger community water systems serving more than 3,300
    users had significant violations. These violating larger community systems served more than 61 million (22%) of
    the 272 million users served in their primary residence by community water systems.

  • Of the approximately 44,000 community water systems serving 3,300 users or less in their primary residence,
    over 16,600 (38%) had significant violations. Over 7.8 million users were served by these small community water
    systems. Fifty-two (21%) out of 248 larger non-community water systems serving more than 3,300 users had
    significant violations. Together these 52 non-community systems served only about 464,000 (1.9%) users of the
    24 million users served by non-community water systems.

  • Approximately 18,700 (36%) out of the over 52,000 community water systems had significant violations. Of the
    272 million users served in their primary residence by community water systems, approximately 69 million
    received their water from one of the violating community water systems.

  • Approximately 2,100 (25%) of the more than 8,600 larger community water systems serving more than 3,300
    users had significant violations. These violating larger community systems served more than 61 million (22%) of
    the 272 million users served in their primary residence by community water systems.

  • Of the approximately 44,000 community water systems serving 3,300 users or less in their primary residence,
    over 16,600 (38%) had significant violations. Over 7.8 million users were served by these small community water
    systems.

It seemed strange that information on the nature of coliform was difficult to find. It seemed even more strange to find
university people as well as health officials writing about coliform who didn't have a clue. But then I realized, that like all
of us, they depend on EPA to define the terms. No one questions "EPA" because Congress has given it absolute power
over our health. No one wants to believe there is a little old wizard behind the curtain with his own agenda, just get rid
of the hazardous waste cheaply for industry at any human and environmental cost.

Since EPA started promoting sewage sludge with a massive public relation program and restricted discharge of sewage
effluent into the surface water,
foodborne and waterborne infections have skyrocketed from 2 million in 1986 to 76+
million in 1999. Only God knows what the current numbers are today. We appear to have a number of
epidemics/pandemics effecting public health. Who would have thought our children would get sexual transmitted viral
diseases from our drinking water?

EPA employees knew there would be a problem with pathogen contaminated sludge biosolids Yet, on
October 17, 1994
EPA deliberately set out to contaminate watersheds with biosolids as a part of its PR campaign to cover up biosolids
horror stories and gain acceptance by the public. In fact, EPA used pollution prevention money to accomplish the deed.
In 1995, EPA employees acknowledged that
no risk assessment was ever done for metals, chemicals or pathogens.

Wastewater and drinking water treatment plant operators are not to blame for our health problems. They are not
microbiologist. There is not doubt in our mind, most of these people are doing their job the best they know how based
on the information supplied  by someone at EPA. Sometimes we forget those people at EPA may not be qualified to
hold the position and simple forced to follow policy, if they want to hold their job. However, ignorance has never been a
good defense for harming people.