T vaginalis principally infects the squamous epithelium of the genital tract. Incubation time is generally
between 4 and 28 days. Infection may persist for long periods in females, but generally persists less
than 10 days in males. Anecdotal evidence suggests that asymptomatic infection may persist for
months or even years in women.
In females, vaginitis is the most common manifestation of infection. Other complications include
infection of the adnexa, endometrium, and Skene and Bartholin glands. Males are usually
asymptomatic. When symptoms are present, they usually manifest as urethritis. Up to 11% of
nongonococcal urethritis cases are caused by T vaginalis. Other complications include infection of the
prostate, foreskin, glans, and epididymis.
STD, sexually transmitted disease, Trichomonas vaginalis, T vaginalis, vaginitis, urethritis, infection of
the adnexa, infection of the endometrium, infection of the Skene glands, infection of the Bartholin
glands, nongonococcal urethritis, infection of the prostate, infection of the foreskin, infection of the
glans, infection of the epididymis
An estimated 7.4 million new cases of trichomoniasis occur per year in the United States. Exact
numbers are difficult to obtain because the infection is not nationally reportable. Prevalence is also
typically underestimated due to the poor sensitivity of diagnostic tests. The reported prevalence in
inner city STD clinics approaches 25%.
Internationally: The World Health Organization estimates that 180 million new cases of trichomoniasis
occur each year
Trichomonas is a protozoan, which is a tiny germ, similar to bacteria. It can infect the genital area. That
is, the vagina and urethra in women, and the urethra and sometimes the prostate gland in men. The
infection does not usually go further into the body and so does not tend to be as serious as other
sexually transmitted infections.