EPA listed Trichuris sp.  as a Primary Pathogen in sludge Biosolids in 1989


Trichuriasis--Whipworm infection


URL:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001364.htm
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National
Library of Medicine, MEDLINEplus Medical Encyclopedia
"Whipworm infection is a common worldwide infection affecting primarily children, which may
develop upon ingestion of soil contaminated with whipworm eggs..."

Trichuris sp-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Trichuris trichiura, or the whipworm, is notable for its small size compared with Ascaris
lumbricoides. Around the world, trichuriasis is a very common intestinal helminthic infection, and
about one quarter of the world population is thought to carry the parasite. The worm derives its
name from its characteristic whiplike shape;

Whipworm infection is rare overall but is less rare in the rural Southeast, where 2.2 million people
are infected.

Whipworm infection is rarely fatal. Rectal prolapse may occur in heavily infected hosts.

Children, due to a higher propensity to directly or indirectly consume soil, are more commonly and
more heavily infected. Also, it is widely believed that partial protective immunity develops with age
and children are not protected initially.

Studies often reveal eosinophilia from ongoing tissue invasion (in contrast to all intestinal
helminths except Strongyloides stercoralis).

http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic842.htm

Geographic Distribution:
The third most common round worm of humans.  Worldwide, with infections more frequent in areas
with tropical weather and poor sanitation practices, and among children.  It is estimated that 800
million people are infected worldwide.  Trichuriasis occurs in the southern United States.

Most frequently asymptomatic.  Heavy infections, especially in small children, can cause
gastrointestinal problems (abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal prolapse) and possibly growth
retardation.

http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/Trichuriasis.htm

Muscle and other tissue invasion - Trichinosis Myalgias   
Fever   
Edema and spasm  
Periorbital and facial edema   
Photophobia
Sweating   
Conjunctivitis   
Weakness or prostration   
Pain upon swallowing  
Subconjunctival,
retinal, and ungual hemorrhages  
Rashes and formication  
Encephalitis,
myocarditis,
nephritis  
Pneumonia,
meningitis,
neuropathy

T trichiura infections: In heavily infected people, infection appears to manifest as mild anemia,
bloody diarrhea (classic trichuris dysentery syndrome), growth retardation (chronic trichuris colitis
with growth retardation), or rectal prolapse.
http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1594.htm


Trichuriasis is an infection of the human cecum, appendix, colon and rectum caused by the parasite,
Trichuris trichiura. It is most commonly known as Whipworm Disease and is remembered in areas of
high prevalence and poor socioeconomic and sanitary conditions.

In the severest of cases, severe chronic diarrhea or dysentery lasts 6 months to 3 years with blood
and excess mucus in the stools, T. trichirua dysentery syndrome produces severe chronic diarrhea

T. trichirua has also been associated with appendicitis in the tropics and allergic manifestations
such as urticaria, rhinitis and eosinophilia are frequently seen.
http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2005/Trichuris/Untitled-12.htm