Viruses' may infect humans, plants and animals  

EPA gave the impression in
1989 that only 9 viruses were of concern in sludge and they would not cause
serious disease. These are a few of the viruses sludge scientists don't talk about.

Viruses decription

Mark D. Sobsey, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental
Sciences and Engineering and John Scott Meschke, University of Washington, School of Public Health &
Community Medicine, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, point out another
way the 4,000 +  viruses such as Papillomasvirus can make their way into sewage effluent - reclaimed water
and sludge - biosolids.

They say the virus families are "Shed in faeces (and in some cases urine) present in fecal wastes and
fecally contaminated environmental samples"


Viruses with no envelope
Adenoviruses, ----------gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, central nervous system, and urinary tract; many
                                species induce malignancy,
human Obesity
Astroviruses, -------------gastroenteritis in humans and other animals
caliciviruses, -------------acute gastroenteritis and inflammation of the stomach and intestines
papovaviruses ----------[Polyomavirus and Papillomasvirus],  25 million U.S. children and women infected
parvoviruses, -----------Fifth disease, slapped cheek disease, spontaneous abortion, transient aplastic,
                             hydrops fetalis, seronegative arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,
picornaviruses -------(enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus),  memory loss and other neurological

enveloped viruses,
arenaviruses,----------------Hemorrhagic fever in the Southwest
bunyaviruses,---------------Hantavirus Hemorrhagic fever in Southwest, lung edema and pulmonary failure.
                               Mortality is around 55%
coronaviruses, -------------SARS, upper respiratory, gastrointestinal tract, pneumonia, new viruses
filoviruses,-----------------viral hemorrhagic fevers
flaviviruses, -------------encephalitis, --West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow
                               Fever Virus
herpesviruses, ----------severe pathogenesis and often death in untreated individuals, infectious
                               mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma, CNS (Central Nervous System) lymphoma,
                               nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, chickenpox and shingles, genital
                               herpes, mononucleosis, retinitis, roseola infantum
orthomyxoviruses, -----Influenzavirus A, human pandemic deaths,
paramyxoviruses, ---    mumps, measles, which caused 745,000 deaths in 2001 and respiratory syncytial
                              virus (RSV) which is the major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and
pestiviruses,-----------   infect mammals, member of the Flavivivirus family
poxviruses, --------------Small pox, infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes
retroviruses,-----------  attack Helper T cells.
rhabdoviruses, ---------vesicular stomatitis virus, Rabies

They say the labs have a major problem because, "The variability and often unknown or poorly
characterized and quantified performance characteristics (e.g., recovery and detection efficiencies) of the
methods is a major source of uncertainty and variability in the available data on virus occurrence,
persistence, survival and fate in fecal material and fecally contaminated environmental samples and it
confounds and limits the ability to understand, interpret and compare these data."

There is not much science yet they say, "Currently, bacteriophages of fecal waste origin are being used to
detect, characterize and quantify the presence, survival, transport and fate of human and animal viral
pathogens in fecally contaminated environmental media. However, the extent to which they can reliably and
quantitatively predict the presence, survival, transport and fate of different viral pathogens in a variety of
environmental media under a range of environmental conditions is uncertain at this time."