EPA listed Rotavirus as a Primary Pathogen in sludge Biosolids in 1989

14     Rotavirus ---------------------------------------  Gastroenteritis, infant diarrhea

Rotavirus /Ro·ta·vi·rus/ (ro´tah-vi?rus) rotaviruses; a genus of viruses of the family Reoviridae, having a wheel-like
appearance, that cause acute infantile gastroenteritis and cause diarrhea in young children and many animal species.
CDC June 24, 1983 / 32(24);311-2,317

Rotavirus was first detected in humans in Melbourne, Australia, in 1973, by thin-section electron microscope
examination of duodenal biopsies obtained from children with acute diarrhea. Shortly thereafter, rotavirus was found in
Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States by electron microscope examination of diarrheal stool
specimens. The virus has since emerged as the single most important cause of diarrhea in infants and young children
admitted to hospitals for treatment of gastroenteritis. The present state of knowledge in the field of rotavirus diarrhea
was reviewed in depth at the second meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Viral Diarrheas, and priority areas for
future research were outlined (1).
A Hexavalent Human RotavirusBovine Rotavirus (UK) Reassortant Vaccine Designed for Use in Developing Countries
and Delivered in a Schedule with the Potential to Eliminate the Risk of Intussusception
Author(s)  Albert Z. Kapikian, Lone Simonsen, Timo Vesikari, Yasutaka Hoshino, David M. Morens, Robert M. Chanock,
John R. La Montagne, and Brian R. Murphy
Identifiers  The Journal of Infectious Diseases, volume 192 (2005), pages S22–S29
DOI: 10.1086/431510
PubMed ID: 16088801

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2005, the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Abstract  There is an urgent need for a rotavirus vaccine, because up to 592,000 infants and young children <5 years
old die each year from rotavirus diarrhea, predominantly in the developing countries.

Worldwide, rotavirus diarrhea affects 130 million infants and children each year, some 18 million of whom have
moderate to severe disease, resulting in 873,000 deaths.

The study was conducted by Albert Z. Kapikian, M.D., head of the Epidemiology Section of the Laboratory of Infectious
Diseases (LID), part of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Irene Pérez-Schael, M.D., chief
of the Laboratory of Enteric Disease at the Instituto de Biomedicina, Universidad Central de Venezuela in Caracas; and
their co-workers. Results are reported Oct. 23, 1997 in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Symptoms develop quickly and, in addition to diarrhea, include vomiting, fever and dehydration. In severe cases, a child
can experience 10 to 20 episodes of diarrhea and 10 to 15 vomiting episodes per day. Dehydration can be reversed
through oral rehydration therapy or, if more serious, through hospitalization and intravenous fluids. Although effective,
these therapies are not readily available or utilized in many parts of the developing world, Dr. Kapikian says. Also, Dr.
Kapikian notes, "Rotaviruses are very egalitarian viruses. Practically every child in the developed and developing world
will be infected with rotavirus in the first few years of life, regardless of hygienic conditions."
Baby Calf Health: Common Diarrheal Diseases
Rota virus - Rota virus infections affects calves between 1 and 21 days old. The disease is characterized by sudden
onset and rapid spread. Calves become reluctant to stand and nurse, mildly depressed, salivate, and have watery,
yellow diarrhea. The diarrhea lasts 1-2 days and maybe longer with secondary infection (3-5 days). Under germ-free
conditions rota virus infections are self-limiting and of short duration 6-10 hours (like the 24 hour flu). Serum antibodies
do not protect calves from infection. As the level of colostral antibodies present in the intestines decline, calves become
more susceptible.