EPA listed Reovirus as a Primary Pathogen in sludge Biosolids in 1989

13.    Reovirus ----------------------------------------- Respiratory infections,  gastroenteritis

any virus belonging to the family Reoviridae.
any virus belonging to the genus Orthoreovirus.

A genus of viruses that contain double-stranded RNA and are associated with various diseases in animals, including
human respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as
Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections.
A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans

KB Chua et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 10.1073, published online 25 Jun 2007.
Abstract: “Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion
of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated
from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we
report a previously unknown reovirus (named "Melaka virus") isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka,
Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family
members developed similar symptoms 1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus.
Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house 1 week before the onset of the
father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and
Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from
human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is
the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically
not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These
data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans.”

J Virol, February 1998, p. 1314-1323, Vol. 72, No. 2
Copyright © 1998, American Society for Microbiology. All rights reserved.

Reovirus Induction of and Sensitivity to Beta Interferon in Cardiac Myocyte Cultures Correlate with Induction of
Myocarditis and Are Determined by Viral Core Proteins
Barbara Sherry,* Johann Torres, and Mary Ann Blum
Department of Microbiology, Pathology, and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606

Received 31 July 1997/Accepted 4 November 1997

Reovirus-induced acute myocarditis in mice serves as a model to investigate non-immune-mediated mechanisms of viral
myocarditis. We have used primary cardiac myocyte cultures infected with a large panel of myocarditic and
nonmyocarditic reassortant reoviruses to identify determinants of viral myocarditic potential. Here, we report that while
both myocarditic and nonmyocarditic reoviruses kill cardiac myocytes, viral myocarditic potential correlates with viral
spread through cardiac myocyte cultures and with cumulative cell death.
Avian reoviruses have been associated with a wide variety of pathologies in commercial poultry. The most economically
important reovirus disease is the arthritis/tenosynovitis syndrome. This condition is characterized by swelling of the
tendon sheath of the metatarsus tendon immediately above the hock joint with resulting lameness of varying degrees.
Gross swelling can result in reluctance of the chicken to move. The affected tendons can become firm and fibrotic, and
adhesions to the tendon sheath and skin can result in a partially non-functional tendon [Johnson et al., Avian Dis. 15:
829-834 (1971)]. Tendon rupture may occur in older birds [Jones et al., Vet. Rec., 96:153-154 (1975)].

Reoviruses have also been associated with a syndrome called malabsorption or pale bird syndrome [Page et al., Avian
Dis., 26:618-624 (1982)]. This intestinal condition has been characterized by stunted growth, poor feathering, loss of
pigmentation, enlargement of the proventriculus, enteritis, and leg weakness. The disease has been thought to be due
to poor absorption of feed nutrients as a result of reovirus infection [Hieronymus et al., Avian Dis., 27:246-254 (1983)].

Other pathologies thought to be caused by reoviruses are hepatitis, hydropericardium, ascites, pale kidneys, small
spleens, pericarditis and myocarditis.