Chlamydia trachomatisis one  strange little animal (bacteria formerly thought to be a virus) that has caused charges of
adultery leading to divorces and charges of  sexual child abuse leading to jail because experts had no idea what they
were dealing with. A sexually transmitted disease does necessarily require sexual activity, the only requirement is to
have sex organs where the disease organism can enter the body. It can just as easily enter the body through the eyes,
nose or mouth.
Chlamydia infection among women have more than tripled in the past 2 decades. C. trachomatis genital
tract infection is associated with many syndromes, including cervicitis, urethritis, endometritis, and salpingitis, and long-
term sequelae include tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy in women and urethritis. It also causes  proctitis, and
epididymitis in men. Other serious diseases in women and children -- trachoma, a leading cause of blindness
worldwide, and lymphogranuloma venereum. --  Inclusion conjunctivitis (pink eye) -- pneumonia -- myocarditis -- Reiter's
Syndrome -- death.
According to Dr. Gabe Mirkin's website, "Mycoplasma, chlamydia and ureaplasma are among the smallest of free-living
organisms. They are unlike other bacteria because they have no cell walls and therefore must live inside cells. They
are unlike viruses because they can live in cultures outside of cells and can be killed by certain antibiotics. However,
they cannot be killed by most antibiotics, as most antibiotics work by damaging a bacteria's cell wall. They can be killed
by antibiotics such as the tetracyclines or erythromycins that do not act on a cell wall. -- They are the most common
cause of venereal diseases and are a common cause of muscle and joint pains, burning in the stomach, a chronic
cough, and chronic fatigue. They can cause transverse myelitis (paralysis of the spine) (1); gall stones (2); a chronic
sore throat (3); red itchy eyes, pain on looking at light and blindness (4); arthritis (5,19); brain and nerve damage with
symptoms of lack of coordination, headaches and passing out; spotting between periods or uterine infections (6);
kidney stones (7); testicular pain; asthma (8); heart attacks (9); strokes (10); cerebral palsy (11); premature birth (12);
high blood pressure (13); nasal polyps (14); stuffy nose in newborns (15); chronic fatigue (16); belly pain (17); muscle
pain (18); confusion, passing out and death (19); coughing, bloody diarrhea, and anal itching and bleeding. -- Most
doctors will not prescribe antibiotics to patients without a laboratory test that indicates a specific infection. No
dependable test is available to rule in or out mycoplasma, chlamydia or ureaplasma infections. Most antibiotics will not
kill these organisms and those that do have to be taken for many months and years. -- You can be infected when an
infected person coughs in your face, or you touch nasal or eye secretions from an infected person and put your finger
in your nose or eye.

Medical Ecology
Recorded knowledge of trachoma dates back as far as 1900 bc , with descriptions appearing in the Egyptian Ebers
papyrus.23 Ancient Greek physicians were also familiar with the disease, and Galen described the rough inner lining of
the upper eyelid that is symptomatic of repeated infections. Ibn 'Isa, an Arab physician during the 11th century,
correctly observed that chronic trachoma infection results in trichiasis, which is a painful condition characterized by
infolding of the upper eyelid such that the eyelashes scratch the cornea.1 European experiences with trachoma were
first noted during the French occupation of Egypt in the late 18th century. During the 19th and early 20th centuries,
trachoma emerged as a well-documented public health problem in England, parts of Europe, and the United States,
with several nations forming eye hospitals whose specific aim was the treatment and quarantine of the disease.1,2
Screening for trachoma was even performed on Ellis Island, and tens of thousands of potential immigrants to the United
States were sent back to Europe due to trachoma infection.1,2,23 With improvements in the standard of living in
Europe and the United States, however, trachoma was effectively eradicated in the industrialized West by the early
1950s, though it remains prevalent in other, less-developed parts of the world.
Significance of Chlamydia Infections
Disease in the Female
In the female, infections with several serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis lead to cervicitis and urethritis as the primary
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and Tubal Factor Infertility (TFI) are major
complications of genital Chlamydia infection. Reports suggesting that genital Chlamydia infection may predispose to
HIV-related AIDS and human Papilloma virus-associated cervical dysplasia have heightened these concerns. Presence
of Chlamydia trachomatis is independently associated with increased cervical cancer risk. The female genital tract
presents special situation.
In vertically or horizontally infected individuals Chlamydia trachomatis may reside
in the vaginal canal without symptoms
until puberty or until sexual activity begins. Chlamydia can reach the
upper compartment either by rapid surface growth following the first menstruation or by direct transfer using motile
sperms. While the lower compartment can harbor asymptomatic Chlamydia infection for years, the upper compartment
will respond to Chlamydia infection with a wide-ranging alteration in reproductive performance, hormonal changes and
immunological reactions.
Chlamydiae are important animal and human pathogens causing severe diseases such as trachoma, genital tract
infections and pneumonia. -- From a public health point of view it therefore deserves attention that a large number of
rRNA sequences detected in various clinical and environmental samples (including bronchoalveolar lavage, nose,
throat and ocular swabs from humans and animals, fresh water, soil, and activated-sludge samples) represent as yet
unknown chlamydiae, indicating that chlamydial diversity is still dramatically underestimated (Bodetti et al., 2003;
Corsaro et al., 2001, 2002a, b; Horn & Wagner, 2001; Ossewaarde & Meijer, 1999; recently reviewed by Corsaro et al.,
2003; see M. E. Ward's for up-to-date information).
Diagnosis of chlamydial infection in the pediatric population.
The genus Chlamydia now contains 4 species, 2 of which, Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are important
human pathogens. Both organisms cause infections in children and adults, but infection in children pose a unique set
of problems. As
C. trachomatis is primarily a sexually transmitted disease, the presence of rectal or genital infection in a
prepubertal child has been used as evidence of sexual abuse.
Although there are several categories of non-culture
tests that have bear approved for genital sites in adults, these tests are not approved for these sites in children. Of
these tests in rectal and vaginal specimens in children have been associated with a high rate of false positives. C.
pneumoniae is emerging as a frequent cause of community acquired pneumonia in adults and children. Because
culture is not generally available, serologic diagnosis is used more frequently. However, currently available serologic
methods appear to be insensitive in children. The availability of a commercial PCR test will greatly facilitate the
diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infections in children.

Chapter 60 -- Pathogenesis and Control of Blinding Trachoma
Chlamydia trachomatis


Trachoma is associated with poverty. Economic development appears to eliminate or reduce the severity of the disease.
8 Transmission of the disease is by direct or indirect contact with infected material (e.g., hands, clothing, towels).
Among the environmental and behavioral features of greatest importance are the presence of young children with dirty
faces and nasal discharge, crowding, the absence of latrines, and the unavailability of safe water for household use. ---
Children with endemic trachoma harbor C. trachomatis in the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts,13 so
transmission also may occur by respiratory droplet spread or fecal contamination.
Biohazards are the greatest threat to humankind
When the Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria comes in contact through peoples’ eyes through washing or damp linen, it
causes trachoma which threatens blindness in 146 million people including 6 million who are already visually impaired
Water-Borne Diseases bacteria
Chlamydia trachomatis
Water Borne Infectious Diseases:
Vibrio cholerae
Escherichia coli 0157
Salmonella typhi
Shigella flexneri
Campylobacter pylori
Chlamydia trachomatis

Feb 11, 2010 -- Medscape
Bacterial Infections and Pregnancy
Author: Heather Comer Yun, MD; Chief Editor: Carl V Smith, MD

Chlamydia trachomatis infection

The usual mode of transmission to the fetus is vertical during the second stage of labor. The major routes of entry are
the eye and the nasopharynx.

Clinical spectrum

Approximately 75% of women with C trachomatis infection are asymptomatic. The disease can cause endometritis,
cervicitis, acute PID, and acute urethral syndrome in all women and chorioamnionitis, postpartum endometritis, and
gestational bleeding in pregnant women. The endometritis noted in these women can be observed after delivery, and
infection may be severe enough to necessitate hysterectomy. In neonates, C trachomatis infection commonly causes
conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum) and pneumonia.
[Immunologic status in cattle naturally infected with the microorganisms Chlamydia trachomatis and
Chlamydia psittaci].
In the present paper there is a description of immunological reactions in 12 to 14 months old bullocks, naturally infected
by the microorganisms Chlamydia (Ch.) psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis. In the course of infection by the above-
mentioned microorganisms (chlamydia isolated from semen) without any clinical symptoms the activity of leucocytes and
polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in the peripheral blood is variable and the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins
(IG) decrease. It has been demonstrated that the infection of bullocks by Ch. trachomatis increases the bacteria
absorbing capacity of PMN cells (from 14.2 to 20.1), percent of phagocytic cells in the peripheral blood (from 13.0 to
Prevalence of zoonotic chlamydiae in dairy cattle and contact persons

We found a wide dissemination of chlamydial infections in the cattle herds. -- The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in
5 sputum samples is remarkable and needs further investigation. Apart from being an important pathogen in sexually
transmitted diseases, it is also known as a respiratory pathogen. In this context, the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis
in nasal and vaginal swabs of some cows (from another farm) is also interesting, but requires further examination.
Chlamydia trachomatis continues to be the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections in the United
States; 11 million cases of C. trachomatis infection were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in
2007 [1]. Reported case rates of chlamydial infection among women have more than tripled in the past 2 decades, in
the era of increasing implementation of screening and early intervention strategies. The World Health Organization
estimates that 190 million persons are infected worldwide [2]. Infection occurs in all socioeconomic groups and
geographic areas. C. trachomatis genital tract infection is associated with many syndromes, including cervicitis,
urethritis, endometritis, and salpingitis, and long-term sequelae include tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy
in women and urethritis, proctitis, and epididymitis in men. The infection is commonly asymptomatic and
indolent and may not be cleared for several months to years [3].
The chlamydia, which are incorrectly called the PLT viruses or Bedsonia or basophilic viruses, are bacteria which are
obligate intracellular parasites of higher animals (mammals and birds).

DISEASE                                                          CAUSUAL AGENT                                                       HOST  
Subgroup A (person-to-person transmition)   
Trachoma                                                 Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Inclusion conjunctivitis                              Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Fowl, Man
Urethritis                                                   Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Cervicitis                                                   Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Ophthalmia neonatorum                           Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Myocarditis                                               Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Lymphogranuloma venereum                   Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Atherosclerosis                                         Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Neonatal Pneumonia                                 Chlamydia trachomatis                                                         Man
Chlamydia trachomatis one of the important species in this group, is classified into three biovars as a result of their
evolution. Two of those biovars, Trachoma and LGV, are pathogens only in humans. -- Although the data of our study
have supported that chlamydiae can adapt to new host species other than humans, further advanced studies are
needed on this subject. Our results have also emphasized that novel routes of transmission should be considered for
C. trachomatis infections.
Chlamydia trachomatis causes several important diseases in humans: chlamydia, the most prevalent sexually
transmitted disease in the U.S., trachoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, and lymphogranuloma venereum.

Etiologic Agent
Certain serovars [serologically distinguishable variants] of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae
are an unusual kind of bacteria, and include the agents that cause psittacosis and a common
cause of “walking” pneumonia. Although rarely seen in the U.S., other serovars of C. trachomatis
cause trachoma, a potentially devastating eye infection.

Avian Diseases Transmissible to Humans  Chlamydiosis, salmonellosis, arizonosis, and colibacillosis are the most
common of these infections. Chlamydiosis, salmonellosis, eastern equine encephalitis and avian tuberculosis may be
serious and even life- threatening.  Chlamydia psittaci , an unusual bacteria-like organism, occurs worldwide and
affects more than 100 avian species. It causes a disease called psittacosis or parrot fever when it occurs in psittacine
birds (curve-beaked, like parrots, parakeets, etc.)and the disease is called ornithosis when diagnosed in all other birds
or in humans.  In the U.S., chlamydiosis is a major problem with turkeys, pigeons, and psittacines. In Europe, the main
avian species affected are ducks and geese. Some birds (turkeys) are extremely susceptible to chlamydiosis, while
others (chickens) are more resistant.

Infect Immun. 2001 March; 69(3): 1832–1840.

Inflammation and Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enteric and Nonenteric Mucosae

Immunization(s) fostering the induction of genital mucosa-targeted immune effectors is the goal of vaccines against
sexually transmitted diseases. However, it is uncertain whether vaccine administration should be based on the current
assumptions about the common mucosal immune system. We investigated the relationship between mucosal sites of
infection, infection-induced inflammation, and immune-mediated bacterial clearance in mice using the epitheliotropic
pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydial infection of the conjunctival, pulmonary, or genital mucosae stimulated
significant changes in tissue architecture with dramatic up-regulation of the vascular addressin, VCAM, a vigorous
mixed-cell inflammatory response with an influx of α4β1+ T cells, and clearance of bacteria within 30 days. Conversely,
intestinal mucosa infection was physiologically inapparent, with no change in expression of the local MAdCAM
addressin, no VCAM induction, no histologically detectable inflammation, and no tissue pathology. Microbial clearance
was complete within 60 days in the small intestine but bacterial titers remained at high levels for at least 8 months in the
large intestine. These findings are compatible with the notion that VCAM plays a functional role in recruiting cells to
inflammatory foci, and its absence from the intestinal mucosa contributes to immunologic homeostasis at that site. Also,
expression of type 1 T cell-mediated immunity to intracellular Chlamydia may exhibit tissue-specific variation, with the
rate and possibly the mechanism(s) of clearance differing between enteric and nonenteric mucosae. The implications of
these data for the common mucosal immune system and the delivery of vaccines against mucosal pathogens are
Accordingly, the GI tract serves as an important reservoir and source for the transmission of these organisms.
Chlamydiae, which may cause abortions ( Abortion in Cattle: Overview) and pneumonia ( Chlamydial Pneumonia:
Introduction), can readily be isolated from feces of normal sheep and cattle. They have also been recovered from
intestinal samples of animals affected with polyarthritis ( Chlamydial Polyarthritis-serositis), encephalomyelitis ( Sporadic
Bovine Encephalomyelitis: Introduction), and conjunctivitis ( Chlamydial Conjunctivitis: Introduction). Most fecal isolates
from ruminants belong to the species Chlamydia pecorum but some isolates belong to Chlamydophila (Chlamydia)
psittaci . The intestinal infection plays an important role as an initiating event in the pathogenesis of several chlamydia-
induced diseases. The intestinal infectious phase also plays an important role in avian chlamydiosis ( Avian
Chlamydiosis: Introduction).

While most of the intestinal chlamydial infections are clinically quiescent, a primary chlamydia-induced enteritis has
been seen under field conditions in newborn calves. Such infections may also lead to a change in the number of
Escherichia coli in the GI tract, with abnormally high numbers in the abomasum and upper small intestine. Signs are
more severe in colostrum-deprived calves or in those with only a partial transfer of colostral immunity. Affected newborn
calves may have a transient watery to mucoid diarrhea with slight fever and nasal discharge. Many veterinary
diagnostic laboratories do not routinely check diarrheic feces for chlamydiae; therefore, such an examination must be
requested specifically. Treatments of choice are high doses of tetracyclines, administered parenterally or orally, or both.

Common Ancestry Of Bacterium And Plants Could Be Key To An Effective New Treatment For Chlamydia
ScienceDaily (Nov. 10, 2006) — Rutgers researchers have discovered that the Chlamydia bacterium, which causes a
sexually transmitted disease (STD), shares an evolutionary heritage with plants. That shared evolutionary heritage,
which is not found in most other bacteria, points to a prime target for development of an effective cure for Chlamydia
“The unique connection between the Chlamydia bacterium and plants had been proposed by others,” said Thomas
Leustek,” a professor in the department of plant biology and pathology at Rutgers' School of Environmental and
Biological Sciences (formerly Cook College). “But we have now described a specific example demonstrating the
common heritage. That specific example, an enzyme that supports protein production, could lead to antibiotics specific
for this form of STD.”

The discovery is an unexpected turn in solving the mystery of how plants produce lysine, one of the 20 amino acids
normally found in proteins. Scientists have known the specific pathways of lysine production in bacteria for more than a
half-century. They also have known some of the steps by which lysine is produced in plants, but they didn’t really have
the full picture. Leustek and Andre Hudson, a postdoc working in Leustek’s lab in Rutgers’ Biotechnology Center for
Agriculture and the Environment, were able to solve the pathway when they discovered the gene encoding the enzyme
L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from the plant Arabdiopsis thaliana. The results of this discovery were published
in the journal Plant Physiology in January 2006.

The gene that Leustek and Hudson had discovered was unmistakably similar to a sequence that Anthony Maurelli of
the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Md., had detected in Chlamydia. “Further
experimentation confirmed that the Chlamydial gene had the same function as the Arabidopisis gene demonstrating
their common ancestry,” said Leustek. "If they evolved separately, it would be impossible for the sequences to match so

The ability to easily compare plants and bacteria is the result of genome sequencing, which has decoded the complete
genetic blueprint for entire species. “This would not have been possible 10 years ago,” said Leustek. “But now we have
access to more that 500 different genomes in a data base. After having identified a gene in plants, I can quickly identify
the homologous gene from any bacteria in the database. As a plant biologist I wouldn’t have ever imagined that I would
be working with Chlamydia. Yet, with the help of genomics I found myself working with a collaborator and publishing a
paper in that area.”

Their experiments revealed that in addition to sharing genome sequences, Chlamydia and plants share similar
functions as well. Furthermore, they found that the pathway used by plants to produce lysine is probably used by
Chlamydia to synthesize a chemical found in bacterial cell walls. It is the synthesis of cell walls that is inhibited by
penicillin. This discovery points to the likelihood that, if researchers could find an inhibitor for L,L-diaminopimelate
aminotransferase they would have a new antibiotic that would target Chlamydia.

Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacteria that is responsible for a common STD. If untreated, Chlamydia infections can
damage a woman's reproductive organs and lead to infertility. An estimated 2.8 million men and women in the U.S. are
infected with chlamydia each year. Chlamydia can be easily treated and cured with antibiotics. However, bacteria often
develop resistance to antibiotics, meaning that new ones must be continually discovered. Moreover, an inhibitor to L,L-
diaminopimelate aminotransferase would be very specific for Chlamydia since this enzyme has not been found in any
bacteria that live with humans.

So the hunt for a new antibiotic is on. Leustek is going to start screening for chemicals that block the enzyme. He is also
using the results of his research to work on another approach, which is to characterize the structure of the enzyme so
that he could design an antibiotic that would disable the pathway. This approach is somewhat like designing a key to fit
a lock by opening the lock and looking inside.

The research is being done in collaboration with Charles Gilvarg from Princeton University. “He’s the biochemist who
characterized the lysine pathway back in the 1950s, and so he had intimate knowledge about the steps of the pathway,”
said Leustek. “And he’s the one that alerted us to the fact that plants do it differently. This is still the case, with the
exception of the Chlamydia bacterium.”

The latest work, which describes the similarities in the genetic sequences of Chlamydia and plants, will be published in
the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Online Early Edition the week of November 6, 2006. In addition
to Leustek, Hudson, Maurelli and Gilvarg, authors include Andrea McCoy and Nancy Adams of the Uniformed Services
University of the Health Sciences.
Adapted from materials provided by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.
Multiple Sclerosis - Cause Identified?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a fairly common and generally progressive disease of the central nervous system affecting
some 350,000 Americans. While typically regarded as simply a cause of morbidity, more than 3,000 Americans die
each year as direct consequence of MS - a disease in which the cause has remained stubbornly elusive.

Over a century ago, French physician Pierre Marie, published a monograph in which he indicated that multiple sclerosis
was likely caused by some form of infection. Indeed by 1998, at least 16 infectious agents had been identified as
possibly causing multiple sclerosis. Under strict scientific scrutiny, none of these infectious agents has been found to
specifically induce the disease.

But recently, the most convincing data ever presented relating infection with a specific organism to multiple sclerosis
has been reported from the department of neurology and pathology, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville,
Tennessee. Dr. Subramaniam Sriram and co-workers, publishing their results in the July 1999 issue of Annals of
Neurology, have demonstrated the presence of a specific type of bacteria in 100% of the 37 multiple sclerosis patients
they studied. As the authors reported, “the evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in both progressive MS and relapsing -
remitting patients suggests that the infection of the central nervous system with Chlamydia pneumoniae occurs early
and persists perhaps throughout the course of the disease and does not differentiate between different clinical
subtypes of the disease.

This organism, Chlamydia pneumoniae, is a fairly recent addition to the list of bacteria known to affect humans. It is now
recognized as a cause of pneumonia, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and several chronic diseases. More importantly,
Chlamydia pneumoniae has now been recognized as playing at least some positive role in reactive arthritis and
coronary artery disease - medical conditions which, like MS, are characterized by ongoing inflammation.

An interesting observation supporting the relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae and multiple sclerosis is based
on the discovery that two commonly used medications for multiple sclerosis, interferon-beta and methotrexate
profoundly inhibit the growth of the Chlamydia bacteria. This is interesting and provocative information as we do not yet
fully understand why these drugs are sometimes effective in MS treatment.

Over the past several years, the medical literature has published various articles describing specific viruses thought to
be the causative agent for multiple sclerosis, only to have these reports subsequently refuted. But this new research
describing the possible relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae and multiple sclerosis is most compelling. And the
good news is that unlike viruses, specific antimicrobial medicines are available to treat Chlamydia pneumoniae.

Based upon this research, it is not unreasonable for patients with multiple sclerosis to consider an empiric treatment for
Chlamydia pneumoniae. As this discovery is so new, no specific treatment protocols have as yet been created and it will
likely be several years until clinical trials have been designed, approved, funded, completed, and ultimately published,
until we know for sure that MS patients should be treated. But in light of the present evidence, empirically treating MS
patients for Chlamydia pneumoniae seems reasonable. Obviously this decision should be discussed with treating
physician. Antibiotics generally quite effective in treating Chlamydia pneumoniae infections include doxycycline and
tetracycline. Doxycycline may be the more effective treatment since it is more able to penetrate the blood - brain barrier
to enter the brain.
Chlamydia is a curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). You can get chlamydial infection during vaginal, oral, or
anal sexual contact with an infected partner. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious
complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes
a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man. Chlamydia is one of the most
widespread bacterial STDs in the United States.
Chlamydia is caused by infection with the bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. Although C. trachomatis is the most
widely known of the Chlamydia genus, it has three species that cause human disease:

C. trachomatis, which can cause urogenital infections, trachoma, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and lymphogranuloma
venereum (LGV).
C. pneumoniae, which can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, and pneumonia, and is believed by some to cause
C. psittaci, which can cause pneumonia (psittacosis).
All species of Chlamydia are small obligate intracellular parasites, and, because of this, were once considered to be
viruses. However, we now know they are bacteria. Although they are unique in lacking peptidoglycan—a component of
the cell wall in other bacteria and the site of action of many antibiotics, including penicillins.

Reiter's Syndrome
Reiter's syndrome is a disorder that causes three seemingly unrelated symptoms: arthritis, redness of the eyes, and
urinary tract symptoms.

Doctors sometimes refer to Reiter's syndrome as a seronegative spondyloarthropathy because it is one of a group of
disorders that cause inflammation throughout the body, particularly in parts of the spine and at other joints where
tendons attach to bones. (Examples of other seronegative spondyloarthropathies include psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing
spondylitis, and inflammatory bowel syndrome arthritis.) Inflammation is a characteristic reaction of tissues to injury or
disease and is marked by four signs: swelling, redness, heat, and pain.

Reiter's syndrome is also referred to as reactive arthritis, which means that the arthritis occurs as a "reaction" to an
infection that started elsewhere in the body. In many patients, the infection begins in the genitourinary tract (bladder,
urethra, penis, or vagina). The infection is most commonly passed from one person to another by sexual intercourse.
This form of the disorder is sometimes called genitourinary or urogenital Reiter's syndrome. Another form of the
disorder, called enteric or gastrointestinal Reiter's syndrome, develops when a person eats food or handles substances
that are tainted with bacteria. [3]
Plant Chlamydia relationships
Back in the late 1960s as a raw Microbiology undergraduate, the early theories relating bacteria to the evolution of
subcellular organelles in eukaryotes intrigued me. As the chlamydial genome was unravelled, it was fascinating to find
that chlamydiae had a large number of "plant-like" genes, most of them associated with the plastid (chloroplast), the
powerhouse of photosynthesis on which human life itself depends. At the time I wrote the first part of this article in 2002
and 2003, it was thought that chlamydiae and cyanobacteria might share an ancestral relationship. Some of the
evidence for that is summarised in the original article, which I have chosen to leave unrevised. Since then much more
genomic data have become available, most notably for an environmental Protochlamydia endosymbiotic in amoebae
and for the extremophilic red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In updating the original, I have focussed on a milestone
paper published in 2007 in which Jinling Huang and Johann Gogarten argue that chlamydial endosymbiosis played a
crucial role in the establishment of primary plastids from cyanobacteria. This view is supported by further work from the
Bhattacharya group.


Chlamydia are members of the order Chlamydiales, family Chlamydiaceae, but the current
taxonomic classification is, again, under review. The cause of concern for cattle are, at the
moment, Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila pecorum. In literature Chlamydia in
cattle (and sheep) have been described as belonging to two immunotypes.
Type 1 (Chlamydia psittaci) was associated with abortions and genital and intestinal
infections in cattle and sheep, Type 2 (Chlamydia pecorum) was isolated from animals with
encephalomyelitis, polyarthritis and associated intestinal infections or conjunctivitis.
Antibodies against one type don’t protect against the other and locally produced antibodies
don’t protect against infection of other parts of the host’s body. Infection with Chlamydia
causes long-time damage of the organ sites affected.
Chlamydia don’t seem to be very host or tissue specific, many strains produce generalized
infections in several host species, others localize and cause pronounced inflammation in one
or more tissue or organs of an infected host.
Most animals are latently infected, a well balanced host-parasite relationship represents the
common nature of chlamydial infection. Under circumstances of stress the animal may shed
organism in large numbers or may itself lapse into clinical disease.

Chlamydia are shed in nearly all excretions of the animal affected like faeces, birth fluids,
saliva, milk etc. It has yet to be established at what point of live an animal becomes infected,
this might well take place in utero at the earliest point as well as through milk or contact
with body fluids of animals shedding the bacteria.
Back to the farm:
Symptoms in adult cattle are:
·  Depression
·  Lacrimation, Conjunctivitis
·  Salivation
·  Flu like symptoms with oculonasal discharge
·  Pneumonia
·  Milk drop
·  Mastitis
·  High cell counts
·  Abortion
·  “Downer” cattle
·  Retained placenta
·  Diarrhoea
·  Polyarthritis
·  Loss of condition
·  Meningo-Encephalomyelitis

Calves and young stock are suffering from:
·  Pneumoenteritis
·  Joint ill/Polyarthritis
·  Conjunctivitis
·  Encephalomyelitis

The zoonotic potential of Chlamydia is well known and there are findings suggesting
different strains of Chlamydia might play a role in human diseases of the heart, the
coronary system, Alzheimer’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis. Should there be any
truth in this findings measures must be in place to protect humans to catch infection
from animals and animal derived products. (MILK!)
This turned out to be the beginning of some kind of “never ending story”:
The local and regional animal health services in collaboration with the competent Ministry
decided, after looking into publications that Chlamydia certainly was not responsible for the
problem. As Chlamydia is a common organism in livestock and humans they couldn’t see
any reason why, out of a sudden, the bacteria should cause the severe problems
experienced. They took it the easy way: Blame the farmers. Farmers were urged to tighten
their management systems, look into their feeding regimes, use more disinfectants and the
problems would disappear! Vets should look for BVD/MD, IBR, BRSV and should refrain from
upsetting their clients by the mentioning of the word Chlamydia.,7781a

Title;Chlamydia Trachomatis Proctitis, Report of a Case and Review of the Literature in Japan
Author;OTANI AKIFUMI(Fac. Medicine, Saga Medical School, JPN)   MIZUGUCHI MASANOBU(Saga Med. Sch.)   TODA
SHUJI(Saga Med. Sch.)   FUJISAKI JUNSHI(Fujisakibyoin)   NAKAMURA IKUKO(Fac. Medicine, Saga Medical School,
JPN)   HAYASHI DAIZO(Fac. Medicine, Saga Medical School, JPN)   OTANI HIBIKI(Fac. Medicine, Saga Medical School,
JPN)   MATSUNAGA KEIJI(Fac. Medicine, Saga Medical School, JPN)   TSUNADA SEIJI(Fac. Medicine, Saga Medical
School, JPN)    
Journal Title;Stomach and Intestine

Journal Code:Z0369A


Figure&Table&Reference;FIG.5, TBL.2, REF.10
Pub. Country;Japan
Abstract;A 35-year-old woman was referred because of a 3-month history of diarrhea and hematochezia. On admission,
physical examination revealed tenderness in the lower abdomen. Laboratory results were significant for a C-reactive
protein level of 0.34 mg/dl and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 39 mm/hr. IgG antibodies were positive for
Chlamydia trachomatis. Colonoscopy and barium enema examination demonstrated numerous nodular lesions
spreading over the rectum. The mucosa above the sigmoid colon appeared normal. Rectalbiopsy specimens showed
hyperplasia of the lymphoid follicles and diffuse infiltration of inflammatory cells. The DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis was
determined from rectal specimens by polymerase chain reaction. The patient was treated with minocycline
hydrochloride, after which she became asymptomatic. We reviewed seven cases of Chlamydia trachomatis proctitis in
the Japanese literature. We conclude that gastroenterologists should be aware of Chlamydia trachomatis proctitis and
include it in the differential diagnosis of inflamed rectal mucosa showing numerous nodular lesions. (author abst.)

Chlamydial Infections
Author: Robert W Tolan Jr, MD, Chief, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital
at Saint Peter's University Hospital; Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Drexel University College of Medicine
Coauthor(s): Marc James Grella, MD, Clinical Instructor, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital
Contributor Information and Disclosures

Updated: Jan 21, 2009

Chlamydia infection can cause disease in many organ systems. The most frequent disease caused by Chlamydia
trachomatis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects the cervix, urethra, salpinges, uterus, nasopharynx, and
epididymis. C trachomatis infection causes other diseases, including conjunctivitis, pneumonia or pneumonitis, afebrile
pneumonia syndrome (in infants born vaginally to infected mothers), Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (inflammation of the
liver capsule), and trachoma, the world's leading cause of acquired blindness, which is spread from eye-to-hand-to-eye
and caused by serotypes A, B, and C.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection is spread via respiratory droplets and causes pharyngitis, bronchitis, and
pneumonia. Chlamydophila psittaci infection is spread by bird droppings and aerosols and causes psittacosis. These
infections are not discussed in this article.

C trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects the urethra and cervix. The bacterium is usually spread
through sexual activity and can be vertically spread, causing conjunctivitis and pneumonia in newborns (see Afebrile
Pneumonia Syndrome). If untreated, genital disease can progress to epididymitis in males and upper genital tract
disease in females. Chlamydia infects columnar epithelial cells, which places the adolescent female at particular risk of
infection because of the presence of the squamocolumnar junction on the ectocervix present until early adulthood.

An infected male has a 25% chance per sexual encounter of transmitting the infection to an uninfected female. The
transmission rate from infected mother to newborn is 50%, causing conjunctivitis (most cases) or pneumonia (10-20%).
The incubation period is 1-5 weeks compared with 0-2 weeks for Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, which is the most
significant STI in the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis in newborns.

United States
More than 3 million episodes of chlamydia are reported each year, making it the most prevalent STI. Sexually active
female populations average carriage rates of about 20%. Many patients are asymptomatic. The incidence rate is 2-3
times that of N gonorrhoeae.