1989: Farmer J J; Jorgensen J H; Grimont P A; Akhurst R J; Poinar G O; Ageron E; Pierce G V; Smith J A; Carter G P;
Wilson K L
Xenorhabdus luminescens (DNA hybridization group 5) from human clinical specimens.
Journal of clinical microbiology 1989;27(7):1594-600.

An unusual isolate from a human leg wound was identified as Xenorhabdus luminescens. This finding led to the
discovery or isolation of four additional strains, two from blood and two from wounds. Three of the five strains were from
patients in San Antonio, Tex. Three strains were studied by DNA-DNA hybridization (S1 nuclease-trichloroacetic acid
method) and were 77 to 100% related to each other, 34% related to the type strain of X. luminescens, 35 to 40% related
to three of Grimont's other DNA hybridization groups of X. luminescens, and 9% related to the type strain of
Xenorhabdus nematophilus. The new group of five strains was designated X. luminescens DNA hybridization group 5. All
five strains were very inactive biochemically and fermented only D-glucose and D-mannose. The key reactions for
recognizing this new organism are yellow pigment production, negative test for nitrate reduction to nitrite, weak
bioluminescence (10 to 15 min of dark adaptation is required to see the weak light produced), and a unique hemolytic
reaction on sheep blood agar plates incubated at 25 degrees C. Two case histories of strains from wounds are given;
these suggest that X. luminescens DNA hybridization group 5 may be a new bacterial agent that causes wound
infections. The two cases of wound infection, along with the two blood isolates, suggest that the new organism is
clinically significant