Ochrobactrum
A root/soil bacteria genetically modified by accident or intent to become a human pathogen. Now entering the animal
kingdom.

The first animal deaths directly associated with this bacteria in sludge have been reported. There were also
E. coli,
Enterobacter, and Enterococci present in one incident. All four of the bacteria are associated with necrotizing (flesh
eating) infections which require debridgement.

Pronunciation: ō-krō-bak′trŭm

Definitions:
1. A gram-negative genus of bacteria similar to
Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas spp. in their distribution in environmental
and water sources and their culture characteristics. These have been isolated from a number of clinical sources and
appear to be a cause of
nosocomial bacteremia.
http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=62147

Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Sep;17(3):516-8.
Necrotizing fasciitis, bacteremia, and multiorgan failure caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi.
Brivet F, Guibert M, Kiredjian M, Dormont J.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8218705

1996
Cells of the gram-negative bacteria Ochrobactrum anthropi isolated from
activated sludge show an increase in their
membrane fatty acid saturation when grown on the pesticide atrazine. The bacteria use atrazine as the sole carbon
source. Cells grown on atrazine contain 64% saturated fatty acids in their membranes while those grown on succinate
contain 31%. The C16 and C18 fatty acids ratios increase while the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids decrease
in the presence of atrazine.
Read more: http://www.faqs.org/abstracts/Biological-sciences/Effects-of-atrazine-on-Ochrobactrum-anthropi-membrane-
fatty-acids.html#ixzz0ilcCtpGr
http://www.faqs.org/abstracts/Biological-sciences/Effects-of-atrazine-on-Ochrobactrum-anthropi-membrane-fatty-acids.
html

1996
BNF No. 35, Submitted July 2, 1996 by Monsanto, For use in Human food and animal feed
Corn* CryIAb protein 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS); Glyphosate oxidoreductase
Bacillus
thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk); Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4; Ochrobactrum anthropi Resistance to European
corn borer; Tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate MON 802, MON 805, MON 830, MON 831, MON 832 Nov. 5, 1996
Sep. 6, 1996
http://www.blueheronblast.com/2008/12/better-death-through-chemistry.html

1999
Ochrobactrum anthropi was originally classified in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention O(CDC) group Vd
and was believed to have many similarities to the genus
Achromobacter. However, Holmes et al. (1988) proposed
classification of group Vd organisms as 0. anthropi, emphasizing that this new genus and species is actually quite
distinct from Acromobacter organisms. Much of what is currently known about 0. anthropi is based on its emergence as
an opportunistic human pathogen. Examples include:
0. anthropi meningitis (Chang et al., 1996) and infections in patients with permanently installed catheters (Ainor et al.,
1994). Both cases involved immunocompromised individuals. 0. anthropi also has potential applications for
bioremediation. Laura et al. (1996) isolated a strain from
activated sludge and demonstrated its ability to biodegrade the
pesticide atrazine as a sole source of carbon and energy. Several novel enzymes have also been identified from 0.
anthropi, including a D-stereospecific arninopeptidase (Asano et al., 1992) and a carboxylesterase that specifically
hydrolyzes only 1-methyl acetate (Murase et al., 1991)
http://www2.genome.arizona.edu/pdfs/publications/wingpub/oanthropi.pdf


Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-fermentative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxidase positive Gram negative bacillus.1 In 1980,
the first case of human infection with O anthropi was described.2 Since then, there have been some reports and this
bacillus has been considered as a possible cause of opportunistic infection. There are only two reports of O anthropi
endophthalmitis, one was metastatic endophthalmitis in a patient with a central venous catheter,3 and the other was
after cataract surgery.4 We describe a case of unilateral endophthalmitis caused by O anthropi, which was diagnosed
after two vitreous surgery procedures.
http://bjo.bmj.com/content/83/4/501.3.full

2001
Ochrobactrum anthropi is resistant to most cephalosporins and penicillins due, at least in part, to the inducible
expression of a single ß-lactamase. The ß-lactamase gene has been cloned and sequenced. It encodes an AmpC-type
class 1 serine active-site enzyme that hydrolyses mainly cephalosporins and is resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid.
Expression of the ampC gene is inducible via a typical AmpR regulator, which is encoded upstream of ampC. Inducible
expression is retained following cloning of O. anthropi ampR–ampC into Escherichia coli, confirming that the signal for
AmpR activation in O. anthropi is the same as that used in the Enterobacteriaceae. This is the first reported example of
an AmpC ß-lactamase outside of the -subdivision of the bacterial kingdom. Genomic searches of other non--subdivision
bacteria revealed a homologous ampR–ampC cluster in the plant symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti.
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/47/6/745

BNF No. 77, Submitted April 30, 2001 by Monsanto, For use in Human food and animal feed
Oilseed rape (Canola) 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS); Glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX)
Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4,
Ochrobactrum anthropi strain LBAA Tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate GT200 Sep.
5, 2002 Sep. 4, 2002
http://www.blueheronblast.com/2008/12/better-death-through-chemistry.html


2003
The removal of chromium, cadmium and copper, toxic metals of high environmental priority due to their toxicity, from
dilute aqueous solutions has been studied in the present work, applying a dead exopolysaccharide producing
bacterium, Ochrobactrum anthropi, isolated from activated sludge. Particularly, the effect of pH, metal concentration and
the effects of contact time were considered. Optimum adsorption pH values of chromium(VI), cadmium(II) and copper(II)
were 2.0, 8.0 and 3.0 respectively. Experimental results also showed the influence of initial metal concentration on the
metal uptake for dried biomass. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the
short-term biosorption of chromium(VI), cadmium(II) and copper(II) by O. anthropi.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12835060

2004
We describe a case of infective endocarditis in a prosthetic mitral valve due to Ochrobactrum anthropi. Although O.
anthropi is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients, infections with the bacterium have very rarely been
documented in healthy hosts, and endocarditis is rare. To our knowledge, only two cases of O. anthropi endocarditis
have been reported in the medical literature.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC446288/

2004
According to
Monsanto Company, The Biosafety Permit (No. 03-009) stated that “Glyphosate Herbicide-Tolerant
Canola RT73 is as safe for human food, livestock feed and for processing as its conventional counterparts”.
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a commonly occurring bacterium in the rhizosphere (Lebuhn et al., 2000) and is considered to
be generally nonpathogenic. Both gene products, the CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins, are expressed constitutively in
the plant, and together they are responsible for conferring tolerance to Roundup herbicide.
http://poultsci.highwire.org/cgi/reprint/83/3/456.pdf

2006
The first identified case of O. anthropi was reported in 1980 in a debilitated patient with a pancreatic abscess (2). Since
then, Ochrobactrum has been isolated from other human clinical sources such as blood, urine, wounds, feces, and oral
and vaginal secretions, leading to its specific epithet anthropi (12). The natural habitat and distribution of O. anthropi
have been a subject of debate, as it is found in a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources, including soil,
water, indwelling catheters, retained foreign bodies, and contaminated pharmaceuticals (16). It has been suggested
that, because of its biological characteristics and spectrum of disease, O. anthropi occupies a microbial niche similar to
that of Pseudomonas species (3, 6).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1393105/

2006
Ochrobactrum strains are of particular interest for bioremediation (6). They are capable of degrading
organophosphorus pesticides such as parathion and methylparathion (17), phenol (2), the toxic organic solvent
dimethylformamide (14), petroleum waste (4), and the soil contaminant chlorothalonil (5). They are also capable of
removing chromium, cadmium, copper, and toxic metals from the environment (10). Unfortunately, genetic studies with
Ochrobactrum isolates have been hindered by the lack of an efficient system for gene expression and purification of
recombinant proteins.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1610320/

2007
We report a case of
spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from Ochrobactrum anthropi. O. anthropi is recognized as an
emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to most previously described cases, the patient
reported here had no indwelling catheter. To our knowledge, no case of O. anthropi spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis has been reported in the medical literature until now.
http://synapse.koreamed.org/Synapse/Data/PDFData/0063JKMS/jkms-22-377.pdf

June 2008
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a ubiquitous, aerobic, gram-negative bacillus of low virulence, most frequently associated with
nosocomial infections and infections related to indwelling catheters in immunocompromised hosts. This article presents
the first reported case of O anthropi septic arthritis, here occurring at the acromioclavicular joint of an otherwise healthy
patient, and provides treatment recommendations based on our experience
http://www.orthosupersite.com/view.aspx?rid=28251


2008
An Epidemic of Chronic Pseudophakic Endophthalmitis Due to Ochrobactrum anthropi: Clinical Findings and
Managements of Nine Consecutive Cases
http://biblioteca.universia.net/html_bura/ficha/params/id/35478725.html

2009
Ochrobactrum anthropi is an emerging opportunist pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of
septicaemia due to O. anthropi in an elderly male patient with coronary artery disease with severe left ventricular
dysfunction admitted in the Intensive coronary care unit. Following intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion, the patient
developed a haematoma at the local site, which led to septicaemia. In spite of intensive treatment, the condition of the
patient continued to deteriorate and he died on the seventh day. This infection with the microbiological characteristics
useful for identification of the organism is described.
http://www.ijmm.org/article.asp?issn=0255-0857;year=2008;volume=26;issue=1;spage=81;epage=83;aulast=Arora

2009
During evolution, innate immunity has been tuned to recognize
pathogen-associated molecular patterns. However, some
α-Proteobacteria are stealthy intracellular pathogens not readily detected by this system. Brucella members follow this
strategy and are highly virulent, but other Brucellaceae like Ochrobactrum are rhizosphere inhabitants and only
opportunistic pathogens. To gain insight into the emergence of the stealthy strategy, we compared these two
phylogenetically close but biologically divergent bacteria.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005893

2010
Spinal Arthropathy Associated with Ochrobactrum anthropi in Free-ranging Cane Toads (Chaunus [Bufo] marinus) in
Australia
http://vet.sagepub.com/content/45/1/85.full