Hafnia alvei strains  (1994-1998), ) Three patients had hospital-acquired urinary tract
infections. Hafnia alvei also caused community-acquired cholangitis, cholecystitis, appendicitis,
psoas abscess and prosthetic endocarditis.  In (2000--2005) A total of 138 patients with Hafnia
alvei isolates were identified [in canada] (2.1/100,000/year) and two-thirds were of community
onset. Older age and female gender were important risk factors for acquisition. The most
common focus of isolation was urine in 112 (81%), followed by lower respiratory tract in 10
(7%), and soft tissue in 5 (4%), and the majority (94; 68%) were mono-microbial.