Identification and quantitation of mucosal and faecal desulfovibrios using real time polymerase chain

Background: Desulfovibrios produce sulphide, which is toxic to colonic epithelial cells. These bacteria have previously
been linked to ulcerative colitis. Traditional methods of culturing these organisms are slow, and often unreliable, while
molecular approaches are either non-quantitative or lack sensitivity.
Gut 2004;53:523-529

Infections with bacteria of the family Desulfovibrionaceae.        Other names Lawsonia Infections; Desulfovibrio
Infections; Bilophila Infections; Lawsonia Infection; Infections, Lawsonia; Infections, Desulfovibrionaceae; Infections,
Desulfovibrio; Infections, Bilophila; Infection, Lawsonia; Infection, Desulfovibrionaceae; Infection, Desulfovibrio;
Infection, Bilophila; Desulfovibrionaceae Infection; Desulfovibrio Infection; Bilophila Infection; Lawsonia Infections;
Desulfovibrio Infections; Bilophila Infections

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, found in the digestive tract of both man and animals, is the most common bacteria which
produce H2S under anaerobic conditions. These obligate anaerobes use sulfate as their oxygen source, ammonia as
their sole source of nitrogen, and various forms of organic matter as a food supply including amino acids,
carbohydrates, organic acids, etc., when in an oxygen limited environment. These reactions often take place in the
slime layer on collection pipes and in the sludge of lagoons, etc.

A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide.
Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
(12 Dec 1998)

Sulfate Reduction and Possible Aerobic Metabolism of the Sulfate ...
Transition from Anaerobic to Aerobic Growth Conditions for the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio oxyclinae
Results in
Flocculation. Appl. Environ. ... - Similar pages

Flocculation & sedimentation is widely employed in the purification of drinking water as well as sewage treatment,
stormwater treatment and treatment of other industrial wastewater streams.

Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis is a gram-negative, curved, motile, anaerobic bacillus. D. fairfieldensis has been isolated
only from human specimens and is considered a normal resident of the human gastrointestinal tract. We report the
second case of Desulfovibrio bacteremia associated with choledocholithiasis and review the other reported cases of D.
fairfieldensis bacteremia.

First Isolation of Desulfovibrio Species as Part of a Polymicrobial Infection from a Brain Abscess

Scientists at the Fairfield Hospital in Australia and the VA Medical Center in Pittsburgh report what they believe to be
the second case ever of illness caused by a recently discovered bacterium. The study appears in the July 1997 issue
of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  The report describes the case of 75-year-old Australian man who came to the
hospital after 3 days of fever, chills, sweats, lethargy and anorexia. An initial treatment with antibiotics did not improve
his condition, but after changing the antibiotics his condition improved and he recovered. Laboratory tests indicated
that the organism that caused his fever was a recently described bacterium known as Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis.  
Desulfovibrio bacteria are commonly found in nature and can be isolated from most water and soil types. They are
anaerobic, meaning they can only grow in the absence of oxygen. Only five cases of human infection by Desulfovibrio
have ever been described and this case represents only the second by this species.  "Laboratories need to be aware
of the anaerobic, motile, vibrioid-like organisms, in particular Desulfovibrio species, as rare causes of human disease,"
say the researchers.  (R. McDougall, J. Robson, D. Paterson, and W. Tee. 1997. Bacteremia caused by a recently
described novel Desulfovibrio species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 35:1805-1808.)

In Swine
The causative agent of proliferative enteropathy is Lawsonia intracellularis, a Gram negative obligate intracellular
bacterium in the Desulfovibrio family.1,2 Infection of pigs with this bacterium is consistently linked with the presence of
proliferative lesions of the mucosa of the ileum and large intestine, hyperplasia of crypt enterocytes along with a
decrease in goblet cells in association with the presence of intracellular, curved or S-shaped Lawsonia bacteria.    

The chronic forms of PE lead to clinical or sub-clinical effects on weight gain, feed conversion and fecal consistency.
Clinical observations generally include diarrhea, with "variation" in the weights of growing pigs.3 It also may present as
an acute form with sudden death or bloody diarrhea due to massive hemorrhage within infected proliferative mucosa,
particularly in late finishing pigs and replacement gilts. Since the fulfillment of Kochs' postulates in 1993 and
identification of the antibiotic sensitivity of the organism in 1995, the major areas of ileitis research in the past few
years have focused on i/ combining new diagnostic tools with targeted medication programs, ii/ developing vaccines
and iii/ developing information necessary for potential eradication programs. Other work has focused on the bacterium
itself, with aspects such as pathogenesis and taxonomy, but these are not considered here.