PROTOZOA IN SLUDGE - BIOSOLIDS - EFFLUENT - RECLAIMED WATER
                                   Parasites

EPA list of protozoans in sludge biosolids in 1989. EPA did not indicate they could cause fatal infections
and removed the list from the final 1993 Part 503 sludge policy.

Balantidium  ----
Balantidiasis
symptoms include chronic diarrhea, occasional dysentery (diarrhea with passage of blood or mucus),
nausea, foul breath, colitis (inflammation of the colon), abdominal pain, weight loss, deep intestinal ulcerations, and
possibly perforation of the intestine. Left untreated, it is reported to have a case fatality rate of 30%.

Crytosporidium-----
Onset is acute, with profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and, less commonly, nausea, anorexia, fever, and
malaise. No drugs have been found that kill Cryptosporidium in people with diarrhea. (Merck)


Entamoeba histolyca, ----
Amebic dysentery -- Gastroenteritis, mild diarrhea to severe dysentery may occur. Extraintestinal
infections include liver abscesses.

Also, see
index-amoebae

Giardia lambia -----
Giardiasis  Some organisms transform into environmentally resistant cysts that are spread by the
fecal-oral route, resistant to routine levels of chlorination, watery malodorous diarrhea, abdominal
cramps and distention, flatulence and eructation, intermittent nausea, epigastric discomfort, and
sometimes low-grade malaise and anorexia. significant weight loss in severe cases, causes failure to
thrive in children. (Merck)

Toxoplasma gondii  -
Severe toxoplasmosis, causing damage to the brain, eyes, or other organs, can develop from an acute
Toxoplasma infection or one that had occurred earlier in life and is now reactivated. Central Nervous
System involvement is the most common manifestation, ranging from nonspecific, generalized symptoms
to focal findings such as headache, altered levels of consciousness, motor impairment, and seizures.