HELMINTHS IN SLUDGE BIOSOLIDS  and RECLAIMED WATER --
                       1989 list by EPA not included in final 1993 Part 503

Ascariasis --
Every year, 60.000 deaths are attributed directly to this infection.


Hymenolepis nana,
The Dwarf Tapeworm -- Infection is most common in the Southeast (1% of
 school children in 1 study) and among institutionalized children.

Necator americanus --
Hookworm is the common name for blood-sucking nematodes of the Ancylostomatidae family; the
2 species that most commonly infect humans are Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator
americanus.


Taenia sp --
Taeniasis (Tapeworm)   Convulsions and/or seizures: Seizures are caused by the localization of
cysticerci in brain parenchyma. Children most often present with seizures, which are focal with
acute onset. Cysticercosis is the most common cause of epilepsy in endemic areas and is the
sole manifestation in as many as one third of patients.


Toxicara --
Visceral larva migrans is caused by the migration of larvae through the internal organs of
humans and the accompanying inflammatory reaction that results from this. A constellation of
symptoms develops that includes fatigue, fever, cough, bronchospasm, abdominal pain,
headaches, and, occasionally, seizures. On examination, hepatomegaly, lymphadenitis, and
wheezing can be found. Occasionally, pleural effusions develop. Chronic urticaria has been
described. Severe cases can lead to myocarditis or respiratory failure

Trichuris trichiura --
the whipworm, is notable for its small size compared with Ascaris lumbricoides. Around the
world, trichuriasis is a very common intestinal helminthic infection, and about one quarter of the
world population is thought to carry the parasite. The worm derives its name from its
characteristic whiplike shape;

Eating Dirt
URL:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no8/03-0033.htm
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases
(CDC/NCID)

Parasitic Pathways - Insects & Worms (A-Z listing)
URL:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasiticpathways/insects.htm
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases,
Division of Parasitic Diseases

Geophagy - Eating Dirt - A Traditional Practice Which Provides Nutrients to the Body
URL:
http://geography.about.com/cs/culturalgeography/a/geophagy.htm
About.com

Parasitic Roundworm Diseases Fact Sheet
URL:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/roundwor.htm
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
"Most roundworms or their eggs are found in the soil and can be picked up on the hands and
transferred to the mouth or can enter through the skin..."


Enterobiasis--Parasitic Roundworm Diseases Fact Sheet
URL:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/roundwor.htm
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
"Most roundworms or their eggs are found in the soil and can be picked up on the hands and
transferred to the mouth or can enter through the skin..."