GENETIC TRANSFER -- ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT PATHOGENS --   A PRIMER FOR PLANNERS AND POLICY MAKERS
SEWAGE SLUDGE (A.K.A. BIOSOLIDS) AND RECLAIMED  SEWAGE WATER

In 1928,
Fred Griffith discovered that if a dead toxin producing bacteria killed by heat was
injected into a mouse with a live nontoxin producing bacteria, the live bacteria picked up
the toxin producing gene and caused the same disease as the dead bacteria would have
produced when it was alive.

In 1982 EPA reported on the
Effect of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms
in wastewater effluents.  Sludge biosolids was not disinfected.

1995,
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
The Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections by Ricki Lewis, Ph.D.

2006
“Antibiotic Resistance Genes as Emerging Contaminants:
Studies in Northern Colorado”

2006
Municipal Wastewater Treatment: A Novel Opportunity to Slow the Proliferation of
Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria?  Timothy M. LaPara

2007, Will the
Plague pathogen become resistant to antibiotics?

2007, Resistant
Gut Bacteria Will Not Go Away By Themselves

2007  
REACTION AND SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTIC USE

2007  
Comments on Antimicrobial Drugs and Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant
Staphlococcus aureus, United Kingdom

2008
Drug-resistant E. coli found in Arctic birds.
Resistance to antibiotics is so pervasive that scientists now report having found evidence
of drug-repelling E.coli in Arctic birds,

2008  
Medicine losing battle with killer germs - Many microbes multi-drug resistant

2009
Sewage plants could be creating 'super' bacteria

2009 Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge

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