By Jim Bynum, VP, Gail Bynum, Ph.D                                                                     8/17/2010
Help for Sewage Victims

Like all myths, scientific myths have a grain of truth to support misleading information, which
guides a person away from actual truth.  The three scientific myths of the twentieth century
that put your health and life at risk are the tests for the Enterobacteriaceae family of human
enteric pathogens in food, water and sewage. The test are: Coliforms, Fecal coliforms and
Escherichia coli. If five percent of coliform tests required for water are positive, then a fecal
coliform test must be performed for thermotolerant Enterobacteriaceae. If the fecal coliform
test is positive,  a test for E. coli must be performed. If no E. coli is found, the water is claimed
to be free of all fecal pollution and pathogens. For sewage sludge the scientific myth is that
Class A biosolids with less than 1,000 colonies (millions of bacteria per colony)  of
thermotolerant Enterobacteriaceae per gram of dry sludge is proof there are no pathogens
present. The outright lie is that the colonies are reported to the public as individual bacteria
(colony forming Unit or most probable number).

The first scientific myth was created in 1904 when Christiaan Eijkman, Dutch physician and
professor of physiology, discovered that thermotolerant E. coli would ferment lactose at
114.8°F (46°C) in a cheap test. It was his scientific opinion that thermotolerant E. coli was
from humans and other warm blooded animal's fecal material, while all other E. coli tested at
95°F (35°C) was from cold blooded animals. In 1914 the Public Health Service adopted E. coli
and other coli-like bacteria that ferment lactose at 95°F (35°C) as evidence of fecal pollution
in food and water. Today, FDA adheres to the scientific myth by using "45.5°C [113.9°F] for
food testing, except for water, shellfish and shellfish harvest water analyses, which use
44.5°C." That is very strange since hospitals culture infectious bacteria at 98.6°F (37°C).
Below are the current EPA myths:

1.   Total coliforms: Tested at 95°F (35°C), "include species that may inhabit the intestines of
warm-blooded animals or occur naturally in soil, vegetation, and water. They are usually found
in fecally-polluted water and are often associated with disease outbreaks.
Although they are
not usually pathogenic themselves, their presence in drinking water indicates the
possible presence of pathogens.
" EPA Test Method 1604: EPA-821-R-02-024

Five percent of drinking water samples are allowed to fail the coliform test with immunity.
There are at least 30 pathogenic coliform members of the Enterobacteriaceae family that
causes infections from blood poisoning, to vascular, to flesh eating, to the Black Plague. They
are: Averyella, Budvicia aquatica, Buttiauxella noackiae, Calymmatobacterium, Cedecea,
Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Ewingella , Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Klebsiella,
Kluyvera, Koserella, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Leminorella, Moellerella wisconsensis,
Morganella, Pantoea, Photorhabdus, Proteus, Providencia, Rahnella aquatilis, Salmonella,
Serratia, Shigella, Tatumella, Xenorhabdus, Yersinia, Yokenella regensburgei.

2.    Fecal coliform bacteria: Tested at 112.1°F (44.5°C), "including Escherichia coli (E. coli),
are commonly found in the feces of humans and other warm-blooded animals,
and indicate
the potential presence of other bacterial and viral pathogens.
"  EPA Test Method 1681:

EPA's senior scientist, Mark Meckes, states E. coli and Klebsiella will ferment lactose at this
temperature. However, EPA claims Klebsiella  is not consider a fecal bacteria because it is
commonly associated with textile and pulp and paper mill wastes. Klebsiella  pneumoniae is a
common hospital-acquired infectious agent, second only to E. coli as a urinary tract pathogen,
causes abdominal infections,  pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis. Klebsiella is a superbug. In one
New York hospital outbreak half of the 34 infected people died.

3.    E. coli: Tested at 95°F (35°C), is one species of the coliform group that "is always found
in feces and is, therefore, a more direct indicator of fecal contamination
and the possible
presence of enteric pathogens
. In addition, some strains of E. coli are pathogenic." EPA
Method 1604: EPA-821-R-02-024

In 1900, it was reported that out of 57 infections, nine deaths (out of 31) from childbed fever
(puerperal infection of the genital tract ) was associated with E. coli. Memphis General
Hospital had an infant E. coli diarrhea outbreak during the winter of 1933-34. Forty-seven
percent of the infected infants died.  By focusing on E. coli or fecal coliform, the scientific myth
allows 99.9% of
enteric pathogens to be ignored, including E. coli 0157.